Advertisement

Hepatitis B: Epidemiologie und Stand der Prävention

  • G. Frösner
  • A. Zuckerman
Conference paper
Part of the Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für innere Medizin book series (VDGINNERE, volume 82)

Zusammenfassung

Die virale Hepatitis ist weltweit eine häufige Erkrankung. Allein in der Bundesrepublik wurden 1973 knapp 26 000 Erkrankungen gemeldet, das sind 0,42 Erkrankungen pro 1000 Personen und Jahr. Zudem scheint aufgrund eigener anamnestischer Befragungen nur etwa ¼ aller in der BRD auftretenden Erkrankungsfälle tatsächlich gemeldet zu werden [32]. Unfallpatienten und Tropenausreisende, also Gruppen ohne besondere Hepatitisexposition, weisen 1,8 und 1,6 Erkrankungen pro 1000 Personen und Jahr auf. Die Zahl der tatsächlich stattfindenden Infektionen ist jedoch noch wesentlich höher als die letztgenannten Zahlen, da mit einer hohen Zahl von subklinischen und anikterischen Infektionen, die meist nicht diagnostiziert werden, gerechnet wird.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Aach, R. D., Alter, H. J., Hollinger, F. B., Holland, P. V., Lander, J. J., Melnick, J. L., Weiler, J. M.: Risk of transfusing blood containing antibody to hepatitis-B surface antigen. Lancet 1974 II, 1083–1084.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almeida, J. D., Chrisholm, G. D., Kulatilake, A. E., MacGregor, A. B., Mackay, D. H., O’Donoghue, E. P. N., Shackman, R., Waterson, A. P.: Possible airborne spread of serum-hepatitis virus within a haemodialysis unit. Lancet 1971 II, 849–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Almeida, J. D., Rubenstein, D., Stott, E. J.: New antigen-antibody system in Australia-antigen positive hepatitis. Lancet 1971 II, 1224–1228.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alter, H. J., Holland, P. V., Purcell, R. H., Lander, J. J., Feinstone, S. M., Morrow, A. G., Schmidt, P. J.: Posttransfusion hepatitis after exclusion of commercial and hepatitis-B antigen-positive donors. Ann. intern. Med. 77, 691–699 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alter, H. J., Purcell, R. H., Holland, P. V., Feinstone, S. M., Morrow, A. G., Moritsugu, Y.: Clinical and serological analysis of transfusion associated hepatitis. Lancet 1975II, 838–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barker, L. F., Peterson, M. R., Shulman, N. R., Murray, R.: Antibody responses in viral hepatitis, type B. J. Amer. med. Ass. 233, 1005–1008 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barker, L. F., Shulman, N. R., Murray, R., Hirschman, R. J., Ratner, F., Diefenbach, W. C. L., Geller, H. M.: Transmission of serum hepatitis. J. Amer. med. Ass. 211, 1509–1512 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beasley, R. P., Stevens, C. E., Shiao, I.-S., Meng, H.-Ch.: Breast-feeding and Hepatitis B. Lancet 1975II, 1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blumberg, B. S., Alter, H. J., Visnich, S.: A „new“ antigen in leukaemia sera. J. Amer. med. Ass. 191, 541–546 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boxall, E. H.: Breast-feeding and hepatitis-B. Lancet 1975II, 979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boxall, E., Flewett, T. H.: Vertical transmission of hepatitis-B surface antigen. Lancet 1975II, 1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brodersen, M., Folger, W., Rudhardt, A.: Kontakthepatitis—Hepatitis A und B im Vergleich. Verh. dtsch. Ges. inn. Med. 82 (im Druck).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buchholz, M. H., Frösner, G. G., Ziegler, G. B.: HBs Ag carrier state in an infant delivered by caesarean section. Lancet 1974II, 343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burrell, C. J.: Host components in hepatitis B antigen. J. gen. Virol. 27, 117–126 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Byron, N. A., Davidson, G., Draper, C. C, Zuckerman, A. J.: Role of mosquitoes in transmission of hepatitis B antigen. J. infect. Dis. 128, 259–260 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cherubin, C. E., Prucell, R. H., Lander, J. J., McGinn, T. G., Cone, L. A.: Acquisition of antibody to hepatitis B antigen in three socioeconomically different medical populations. Lancet 1972II, 149–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cossart, Y. E., Hargreaves, F. D., March, S. P.: Australia antigen and the human fetus. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 123, 376–387 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Creutzfeldt W., Severidt, H.-J., Schmitt, H., Gallasch, E., Arndt, H.-J., Bachmann, H., Schmidt, G., Tschaepe, U.: Untersuchungen über Häufigkeit und Verlauf der ikterischen und anikterischen Transfusionshepatitis. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 91, 1813–1820 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dane, D. S., Cameron, C. H., Briggs, M.: Virus-like particles in serum of patients with Australia-antigen-associated hepatitis. Lancet 1970I, 695–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Darani, M., Gerber, M.: Hepatitis-B antigen in vaginal secretions. Lancet 1974II, 1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dennig, H., Fleischer, K.: Hepatitis infectiosa als Berufskrankheit bei Ärzten und Zahnärzten. Med. Welt 45, 2428–2429 (1966).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Desmyter, J., Bradburne, A. F.: Hepatitis-B immunglobulin in prevention of HBs antigenaemia in haemodialysis patients. Lancet 1975II, 377–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dick, S. J., Tamburro, C. H., Leevy, C. M.: Hepatitis B antigen in urbancaught mosquitoes. J. Amer. med. Ass. 229, 1627–1629 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dienstag, J. L., Feinstone, S. M., Kapikian, A. Z., Purcell, R. H.: Immune electron microscopy an hepatitis A. Lancet 1975I, 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dischler, W., Schubothe, H.: Überdurchschnittliche Ansteckungsgefahr. Hepatitis als Berufskrankheit bei einer Krankenpflegerin. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 92, 681–682 (1967).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dupuy, J. M., Frommel, D., Alagille, D.: Severe viral hepatitis typ B in infancy. Lancet 1975I, 191–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Editorial: Hepatitis B: A new vaccine ready for human testing. Science 188, 137-138 (1975).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fawaz, K. A., Grady, G. F., Kaplan, M. M., Gellis, S. S.: Repetive maternal-fetal transmission of fatal hepatitis B. New Engl. J. Med. 293, 1357–1359 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Feinstone, S. M., Kapikian, A. Z., Purcell, R. H., Alter, H. J., Holland, P. V.: Transfusion-associated hepatitis not due to viral hepatitis A or B. New Engl. J. Med. 292, 767–770 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Frösner, G. G.: Spielt neben der Hepatitis B eine „Hepatitis C“ eine wesentliche Rolle im Transfusionswesen? Internist 17 (1976) (im Druck).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Frösner, G. G., Buchholz, H. M., Gerth, H.-J.: Prevalence of Anti-HBs in prostitutes. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 102, 241–250 (1975).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frösner, G. G., Englert, H., Sugg, U., Schneider, W.: Zur Frage der Ermittlung eines Vergleichskollektivs mit „normaler“ Häufigkeit von Anti-HBs. Forschungsergebnisse der Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhaematologie (im Druck).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Frösner, G. G., Flehmig, B., von Alpen-Kleinfeld, G., Haas, H.: Non-A-non-B-Hepatitis nach Transfusion gefolgt von Hepatitis B. (In Vorbereitung).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Frösner, G. G., Gerth, H.-J.: Die périnatale Hepatitis-B-Infektion. Internist 16, 25–26 (1975).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Frösner, G. G., Peterson, D. A., Deinhardt, F. W., Holmes, A. W.: Transmission of hepatitis A and hepatitis B by shared needle. Lancet 1973I, 1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Frösner, G. G., Peterson, D. A., Holmes, A. W., Deinhardt, F.: Hepatitis-B-Antikörper bei Arbeitern eines Plasmafrak-tionierungsbetriebes, Krankenhauspersonal, Patienten und Blutspendern. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., I Abt. Orig. A 227, 363–367 (1974).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Frösner, G. G., Peterson, D. A., Holmes, A. W., Deinhardt, F. W.: Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen in various populations. Infect. Immunity 11, 732–736 (1975).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Frösner, G. G., Schmid, W., Schüz, R., Röllinghoff, W., Höfler, W., Gerth, H.-J.: Häufigkeit von Anti-HBs bei Tropenrückkehrern. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg., I Abt. Orig. A 284, 1976 (im Druck).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Frösner, G. G., Sugg, U., Schneider, W., Gerth, H.-J.: Hepatitis-B-Antikörper bei Blutspendern im südwestdeutschen Raum. Münch. med. Wschr. 117, 81–82 (1975).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fulford, K. W. M., Dane, D. S., Caterall, R. D., Woof, R., Denning, J. V.: Australia antigen and antibody among patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Lancet 1973I, 1470–1474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Galbraith, R. M., Portmann, B., Eddleston, A. L. W. F., Williams, R.: Chronic liver disease developing after outbreak of HBs Ag-negative hepatitis in haemodialysis unit. Lancet 1975II, 886–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Giraud, P., Drouet, J., Dupuy, J. M.: Hepatitis-B virus infection of children born to mothers with severe hepatitis. Lancet 1975II, 1088–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gitnick, G. L., Koretz, R. L.: Hepatitis B antigen: New technics for the reduction of posttransfusion hepatitis. Amer. J. gastroenterology 61, 366–370 (1974).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldfield, M., Black, H. C, Bill, J., Srihongse, S.: Hepatitis B: Sexual transmission. Vortrag auf der Jahrestagung der American Public Health Association, New Orleans/USA, 20.–24. Oktober 1974.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Grabow, W. O. K., Prozesky, O. W., Appelbaum, P. C, Lecatsas, G.: Absence of hepatitis B antigen from feces and sewage as a result of enzymatic destruction. J. infect. Dis. 131, 658–664 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Grady, G. F., Lee, V. A.: Hepatitis B immune globulin — Prevention of hepatitis from accidental exposure among medical personnel. New Engl. J. Med. 293, 1067–1070 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hawkes, R. A., Vale, T. G., Marshall, I. D.: Contrasting sero-epidemiology of Australia antigen and arbovirus antibodies in New Guinea. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 95, 228–237 (1972).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hersh, T., Melnick, J. L., Goyal, R. K., Hollinger, F. B.: Non parenteral transmission of viral hepatitis type B (Australia antigenassociated serum hepatitis). New Engl. J. Med. 285, 1363–1364 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Heathcote, J., Camerone, C. H., Dane, D. S.: Hepatitis-B antigen in saliva and semen. Lancet 1974I, 71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Heathcote, J., Sherlock, S.: Spread of acute type-B hepatitis in London. Lancet 1973I, 1468–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hilleman, M. R., Provost, P. J., Miller, W. J., Villarejos, V. M., Ittensohn, O. L., McAleer, W. J.: Development and utilization of complement fixation and immune adhaerence tests for human hepatitis A virus and antibody. Amer. J. med. Sci. 270, 93–98 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Höpken, W., Willers, H.: Epidemiologie der Virushepatitis in Niedersachsen. Die gelben Hefte 15, 161–169 (1975).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Holland, P. V.: Gamma globulin in posttransfusion hepatitis. In: Hepatitis and Blood Transfusion (eds. G. N. Vyas, H. A. Perkins, R. Schmid), pp. 331–333. New York: Grune and Stratton 1972.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hoffnagle, J. H., Gerety, R. J., Barker, L. F.: Antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen in immune serum globulin. Transfusion 15, 408–413 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jeffries, D. J., James, W. H., Jefriss, F. J. G., MacLeod, K. G., Willcox, R. R.: Australia (hepatitisassociated) antigen in patients attending a venereal disease clinic. Brit. med. J. 1973I, 455–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kattamis, C. A., Demetrios, D., Matsantiotis, N. S.: Australia antigen and neonatal heptitis syndrome. Pedriatics 54, 157–164 (1974).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Keys, T. H., Hobel, C. J., Ritman, S.: Maternal and neonatal Australia antigen. California Med. 115, 1–3 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Knodell, R. G., Conrad, M. E., Dienstag, J. L., Bell, C. J.: Etiological spectrum of post-transfusion hepatitis. Gastroenterology 69, 1278–1285 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Krugman, S., Giles, J. P.: Viral hepatitis. New light on an old disease. J. Amer. med. Ass. 212, 1019–1029 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Krugman, S., Giles, J. P.: Viral Hepatitis Type B (MS-2 strain): Further observation on natural history and prevention. New Engl. J. Med. 288, 755–760 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kunst, V. A. J. M., Bloo, J. H.: Australia antigen and antibody in laboratory and other hospital personnel. Vox Sang. 24, 61–64 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    LoGrippo, G. A., Hayashi, H.: Incidence of hepatitis and Australia antigenemia among laboratory workers. Health Lab. Sci. 10, 157–162 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Louria, D. B., Hensle, T., Rose, J.: The major medical complications of heroin addiction. Ann. intern. Med. 67, 1–22 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Magnius, L. O., Espmark, A.: A new antigen complex co-occuring with Australia antigen. Acta path. microbiol. scand. Sect. B. 80, 335–337 (1972).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Markenson, J. A., Gerety, R. J., Hoffnagle, J. H., Barker, L. F.: Effects of cyclophosphamide on hepatitis B virus. Infection and challenge in chimpanzees. J. infect. Dis. 131, 79–87 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Marmion, B. P., Tonkin, R. W.: Control of hepatitis in dialysis units. Brit. med. Bull. 28, 169–179 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mazzur, S.: Menstrual blood as a vehicle of Australia-antigen transmission. Lancet 1973I, 749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Merill, D. A., Dubois, R. S., Köhler, P. F.: Neonatal onset of the hepatitisassociated-antigen carrier state. New Engl. J. Med. 287, 1280–1282 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Moodie, J. W., Stannard, L. M., Kipps, A.: The problem of the demonstration of hepatitis B antigen in faeces and bile. J. clin. Path. 27, 693–697 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mosley, J. W.: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis: an overview. Amer. J. med. Sci. 270, 253–270 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Neurath, A. R., Prince, A. M., Lippin, A.: Hepatitis B antigen: antigenic sites related to human serum proteins revealed by affinity chromatography. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 2663–2667 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Newkirk, M. M., Downe, A. E. R., Simon, J. B.: Fate of ingested hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) in blood sucking insects. Gastroenterology 67, 817 (1974).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nielsen, J. O., Dietrichson, O., Juhl, E.: Incidence and meaning of the „e“ determinant among hepatitis-B-antigen positive patients with acute and chronic liver disease. Lancet 1974II, 913–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Papaevangelou, G., Hoffnagle, J., Kremastinou, J.: Transplacental transmission of hepatitis-B-virus by symptome-free chronic carrier mothers. Lancet 1974II, 746–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Papaevangelou, G., Kourea-Kremastinou, T.: Role of mosquitoes in transmission of hepatitis B Virus infection. J. infect. Dis. 130, 78–80 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pattison, C. P., Maynard, J. E., Berquist, K. R., Webster, H. M.: Serological and epidemiological studies of hepatitis B in haemodialysis units. Lancet 1973II, 172–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Plainos, T. C, Chloros, G., Tripatzis, I., Luciano, L., Kourepi-Logotheti, M., Tsilivi, N.: Dane particles in homogenates of mosquitoes fed with HBs Ag-positive human blood. Lancet 1975I, 1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Prince, A. M.: Prevalence of serum hepatitis-related antigen (SH) in different geographic regions. Amer. J. trop. Med. 19, 872–879 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Prince, A. M.: Can the blood-transfusion hepatitis problem be solved? Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 240, 191–200 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Prince, A. M., Brotman, B., Grady, G. F., Kuhns, W. J., Hazzi, Ch., Levine, R. W., Millian, S. J.: Long-incubation posttransfusion hepatitis without serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis-B virus. Lancet 1974 II, 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Prince, A. M., Metselaar, D., Kafuko, G. W., Mukwaya, L. G., Ling, C. M., Overby, L. R.: Hepatitis B antigen in wildcaught mosquitoes in Afrika. Lancet 1972II, 247–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Prince, A. M., Szmuness, W., Mann, M. K., Vyas, G. N., Grady, G. F., Shapiro, F. L., Suki, W. N., Friedman, E. A., Stenzel, K. H.: Hepatitis B „immune“ globulin: Effectiveness in prevention of dialysis-associated hepatitis. New. Engl. J. Med. 293, 1063–1067 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Purcell, R. H., Gerin, J. L.: Hepatitis B subunit vaccine: A preliminary report of safty an efficacy tests in chimpanzees. Amer. J. Med. (im Druck).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Redeker, A. G., Mosley, J. W., Gocke, D. J., McKee, A. P., Pollack, W.: Hepatitis B immune globulin as a prophylactic measure for spouses exposed to acute type B hepatitis. New Engl. J. Med. 293, 1055–1059 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Reikowski, H.: Zur Frage der Anerkennung der Virus-Hepatitis als Berufserkrankung. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 90, 2099–2104 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Reinecke, V., Blanke, O., Dybkjaer, E.: Australia antigen and posttransfusion hepatitis. Vox Sang. 24, 65–71 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ringertz, O.: Serum hepatitis in Swedish track-finders. Scand. J. infect. Dis. Suppl. 2 (1971).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Röllinghoff, M., Schäfer, E., Röllinghoff, W.: Unterschiedliches Vorkommen von Australia antigen und Serumhepatititsinfektiosität in tropischen und nichttropischen Ländern. Med. Klin. 67, 535–539 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schneider, W., Sugg, U., Frösner, G., Schäuble, R., Scheerer, U.: Eine neue Radioimmunmethode im Vergleich zu anderen Nachweismethoden des Hepatitis-B-Antigens. Med. Welt. 25, 1934–1938 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schweitzer, I. L., Mosley, J. W., Ashcavai, M., Eduards, V. M., Overby, L. B.: Factors influencing neonatal infection by hepatitis B virus. Gastroenterology 65, 277–283 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Scopes, J. W.: Hepatitis-B virus infection of children born to mothers with severe hepatitis. Lancet 1975II, 1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Seeff, L. B., Zimmerman, H. J., Wright, E. C, Felsher, B. F., Finkelstein, J. D., Gracia-Pont, P., Greenlee, H. B., Dietz, A. A., Hamilton, J., Koff, R. S., Leevy, C. M., Kierman, T., Tamburro, C. H., Schiff, E. R., Vlahcevic, Z., Zemel, R., Zimmon, D. S., Nath, N.: Efficacy of hepatitis B immune serum globulin after accidental exposure. Lancet 1975II, 939–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Skinhoj, P., Olesen, H., Cohn, J., Mikkelsen, M.: Hepatitis-associated antigen in pregnant women. Acta path. microbiol. Scand. 808, 362–366 (1972).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Soulier, J. P., Blatix, C, Courouce, A. M.: Prevention of virus B hepatitis (SH hepatitis). Amer. J. Dis. Child. 123, 429–434 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stevens, C. E., Beasley, R. P., Tsui, J., Lee, W.-Ch.: Vertical transmission of hepatitis B antigen in Taiwan. New Engl. J. Med. 292, 111–114 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Szmuness, W., Harley, E. J. Prince, A. M.: Intrafamilial spread of asymptomatic hepatitis B. Amer. J. med. Sci. 270, 293–304 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Szmuness, W., Hirsch, R. L., Prince, A. M., Levine, R. W., Harley, E. J., Ikram, H.: Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors: further observations. J. infect. Dis. 131, 111–118 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Szmuness, W., Much, M. I., Prince, A. M., Hoofnagle, J. H., Cherubin, C. E., Harley, E. J., Block, G.H.: On the role of sexual behavior in the spread of hepatitis B infection. Ann. int. Med. 83, 489–495 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Szmuness, W., Prince, A. M.: H.A.A. in drug addicts. Lancet 1971II, 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Szmuness, W., Prince, A. M., Diebolt, G., Leblanc, L., Baylet, R., Masseyeff, R., Linhard, L.: The epidemiology of hepatitis B infections in Africa: result of a pilot survey in the republic of Senegal. Amer. J. Epidem. 98, 104–110 (1973).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ulstrup, J. C, Figenschau, K. J., Vellar, O. D.: Hepatitis in Norwegian track-finders. Hepatitis B antigen and antibody measured by staphylococcal radioimmunoassay. Scand. J. infect. Dis. 6, 103–107 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Villarejos, V. M., Visona, K. A., Eduarte, C. A., Provost, P. J., Hilleman, M. R.: Evidence for viral hepatitis other than type A or type B among persons in Costa Rica. New Engl. J. Med. 293, 1350–1352 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Villarejos, V. M., Visona, K. A., Gutierrez, A., Rodriguez, A.: Role of saliva urine and feces in the transmission of type B hepatitis. New Engl. J. Med. 291, 1375–1378 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Vranckx, R.: Hepatitis-B antigen and serological evidence of syphilis. Lancet 1975I, 1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Williams, A. O., Fabiyi, A., Williams, A. I. O., Gupta, B., O’Connor, E. H., Greenwood, B. M.: Hepatitis-B antigen in Nigerian children. East African Med. J. 50, 521–529 (1973).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wright, R. A.: Hepatitis B and the HBs Ag carrier. An outbreak related to sexual contact. J. Amer. med. Ass. 232, 717–721 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zuckerman, A. J., Earl, P. M.: Tissue and organ culture studies of hepatitis typ B. Vox Sang. 24, 123–128 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zuckerman, A. J., Howard, C. R.: Toward hepatitis B vaccines. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 51, 491–500 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Frösner
    • 1
  • A. Zuckerman
    • 2
  1. 1.Abt. für Med. Virologie u. Epidemiologie der ViruskrankheitenHygiene-InstitutTübingenDeutschland
  2. 2.London School of Hygiene and Tropical MedicineEngland

Personalised recommendations