Social Dilemmas: Individual, Collective, and Dynamic Perspectives

  • Wim B. G. Liebrand
  • David M. Messick


Social dilemmas are complex situations in which we can choose what is in our own immediate best interest or what is in the best interest of our groups, which include ourselves as well as others. Finding solutions for social dilemmas constitutes one of the most important challenges for the social and behavioral sciences.


Cellular Automaton Social Dilemma Experimental Social Psychology District Attorney Computer Simulation Computer Simulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Dawes, R. M. (1980). Social Dilemmas. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 169–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Feinberg, W. E. & Johnson, N. R. (1988). Outside agitators and crowds: Results from a computer simulation model. Social Forces, 67, 398–423.Google Scholar
  3. Garson, G. D. (1994). Social science computer simulation: Its history, design, and future. Social Science Computer Review, 12, 55–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hovland, C. I. (1960). Computer simulation of thinking. American Psychologist, 15, 687–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Krech, D. & Crutchfield, R. S. (1948). Theory and Problems of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Liebrand, W. B. G. (1983). A classification of social dilemma games. Simulation and Games, 14, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Luce, R. D. & Raiffa, H. (1957). Games and Decisions. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Newell, A., Shaw, J.C., & Simon H.A. (1958). Elements of a theory of human problem solving. Psychological Review, 65, 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ostrom, T. M. (1988). Computer simulation: The third symbol system. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 381–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Simon, H. A. and Newell A. (1958) Heuristic problem solving: The next advance in operations research. Operations Research, January-February, 1–10.Google Scholar
  11. Troizsch, K. G. (in press). Multilevel process modeling in the social sciences: Mathematical analysis and computer simulation. In W.B.G. Liebrand, R. Hegselmann, & A. Nowak (Eds.), Computer modeling and the study of dynamic social processes. Beverley Hills, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  12. Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social Network Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Weizenbaum, J. (1966) ELIZA — A computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Communications of the ACM, vol 9, 36–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wolfram, S. (1986). Theory and applications of cellular automata. Singapore: World Scientific.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wim B. G. Liebrand
    • 1
  • David M. Messick
    • 2
  1. 1.SWIUniversity of GroningenGroningenNL
  2. 2.Department of Organization Behavior, KGSMNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

Personalised recommendations