The Influence of Cytokines on the Central Nervous System of Transgenic Mice

  • K. Geiger
  • N. Sarvetnick
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 206)


Cytokines are peptide regulatory factors which have been known for more than 40 years. In the past, extensive studies have contributed to a large body of data concerning their structure and their activities. The study of their function included the addition of cytokines to selected cell lines in vitro and the use of inhibitory antibodies and recombinant molecules in vivo. Recently, the production of mice transgenic for cytokine genes, or of mice whose genes encode either cytokines or their receptors, inactivated by homologous recombination (knockout mice), allowed new insight into the function of cytokines in vivo and revealed a whole network of related biological interactions. In contrast to the normal situation, in which the production of cytokines is mostly localized and transient, in the transgenic animals the presence of a transgene, or the complete absence of a targeted gene product, throughout the life of an animal often has consequences different from those that follow the repeated injection of cytokines, which have a short half-life in vivo, or the administration of antibodies, which may not reach every site of cytokine production.


Transgenic Mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Nontransgenic Mouse Express Major Histocompatibility Complex Class 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Geiger
    • 1
  • N. Sarvetnick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuropharmacologyThe Scripps Research InstituteLa JollaUSA

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