Kinetic and Metabolic Disorders of Axoplasmic Transport Induced by Neurotoxic Agents

Part of the Springer Study Edition book series (volume 102)

Abstract

Proteins and other materials synthesized in the cell bodies are transported into the axons and dendrites to support their functions: conduction of nerve impulses, release of neurotransmitters from terminals, and transduction in terminals. The structures of the axon continually turn over and are themselves maintained by transport: the cytoskeleton microtubules and neurofilaments, the membrane and its ion channels and pumps, endoplasmic reticulum, and other membrane-bound organelles (MBO) including transmitter vesicles, etc. It is apparent that toxicants affecting axonal transport can have profound effects on the function and structure of the neuron. A synopsis of transport properties and mechanisms is given in Sect. B to set the stage for the discussion of toxicants known to involve transport in Sect. C. The discussion is restricted for the most part to studies carried out in peripheral nerves taking a wider view of neurotoxicity, including the actions of toxicants on nerves in vitro as well as those following systemic administration. Transport is commonly held to consist of separate fast and slow mechanisms. Slow transport is associated with the maintenance of the cytoskeletal organelles. Their dramatic alteration by some key toxicants is usually accounted for by a selective action on the slow transport mechanism. In this presentation the alternate concept of a unitary mechanism for both slow and fast transport is advanced and neurotoxic actions discussed on that basis.

Keywords

Vanadate Doxorubicin Lidocaine Fenton Imipramine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe T, Haga T, Kurokawa M (1973) Rapid transport of phosphatidylcholine occurring simultaneously with protein transport in the frog sciatic nerve. Biochem J 136:731–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe T, Haga T, Kurokawa M (1975) Blockage of axoplasmic transport and depolymerisation of reassembled microtubules by methyl mercury. Brain Res 86:504–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams RJ (1982) Organelle movement in axons depends on ATP. Nature 297:327–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Albuquerque EX, Daly JW (1976) Batrachotoxin, a selective probe for channels modulating sodium conductances in electrogenic membranes. In: Cuatrecasas P (ed) The specificity and action of animal bacterial and plant toxins. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 297–338 (Receptors and recognition, series B, vol 1)Google Scholar
  5. Allen RD (1987) The microtubule as an intracellular engine. Sci Am 256:42–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen RD, Travis JL, Hayden JH, Allen NS, Breuer AC, Lewis LJ (1982) Cytoplasmic transport: moving ultrastructural elements common to many cell types revealed by video-enhanced microscopy. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 46:85–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Allen RD, Weiss DG, Hayden JH, Brown DT, Fujiwake H, Simpson M (1985) Gliding movement of and bidirectional transport along single native microtubules from squid axoplasm: evidence for an active role of microtubules in cytoplasmic transport. J Cell Biol 100:1736–1752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Asbury AK, Brown MJ (1980) The evolution of structural changes in distal axonopathies. In: Spencer PS, Schaumburg HH (eds) Neurotoxicology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 179–192Google Scholar
  9. Bamburg JR (1988) The axonal cytoskeleton: stationary or moving matrix? Trends Neurosci 11:248–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bamburg JR, Bray D, Chapman K (1986) Assembly of microtubules at the tip of growing axons. Nature 321:788–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Banks P, Till R (1975) A correlation between the effects of anti-mitotic drugs on microtubule assembly in vitro and the inhibition of axonal transport in noradrenergic neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 252:283–294Google Scholar
  12. Berthold C-H (1982) Some aspects of the ultrastructural organization of peripheral myelinated axons in the cat. In: Weiss DG (ed) Axoplasmic transport. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 40–54Google Scholar
  13. Bigotte L, Olsson Y (1987) Degeneration of trigeminal ganglion neurons caused by retrograde axonal transport of doxorubicin. Neurology 37:985–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bisby MA (1975) Inhibition of axonal transport in nerves chronically treated with local anesthetics. Exp Neurol 47:481–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bisby MA (1980) Retrograde axonal transport. Adv Cell Neurobiol 1:69–117Google Scholar
  16. Bisby MA, Bulger VT (1977) Reversal of axonal transport at a nerve crush. J Neurochem 29:313–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bizzi A, Crane RC, Autilio-Gambetti L, Gambetti P (1984) Aluminum effect on slow axonal transport: a novel impairment of neurofilament transport. J Neurosci 4:722–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Black MM, Lasek RJ (1980) Slow components of axonal transport: two cytoskeletal networks. J Cell Biol 86:616–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boegman RJ, Riopelle RJ (1980) Batrachotoxin blocks slow and retrograde axonal transport in vivo. Neurosci Lett 18:143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouldin T, Cavanagh J (1979a) Organophosphorous neuropathy I. A teased-fiber study of the spatio-temporal spread of axonal degeneration. Am J Pathol 94:241–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bouldin T, Cavanagh J (1979b) Organophosphorous neuropathy II. A fine-structural study of the early stages of axonal degeneration. Am J Pathol 94:253–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bradley WG, Williams MH (1973) Axoplasmic flow in axonal neuropathies I. Axoplasmic flow in cats with toxic neuropathies. Brain 96:235–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brady SIT, Chrothers SD, Nosal C, McClure WO (1980) Fast axonal transport in the presence of high Ca : evidence that microtubules are not required. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5909–5913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brady ST, Lasek RJ, Allen RD (1982) Fast axonal transport in extruded axoplasm from squid giant axon. Science 218:1129–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brandner MD, Buncke HJ, Campagna-Pinto D (1989) Experimental treatment of neuromas in the rat by retrograde axoplasmic transport of ricin with selective destruction of ganglion cells. J Hand Surg [Am] 14:710–714Google Scholar
  26. Bray JJ, Hubbard JI, Mills RG (1979) The trophic influence of tetrodotoxin-inactive nerves on normal and reinnervated rat skeletal muscles. J Physiol (Lond) 297:479–491Google Scholar
  27. Brimijoin S (1982) Axonal transport in autonomic nerves: views on its kinetics. In: Kalsner S (ed) Trends in autonomic pharmacology, vol 2. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, pp 17–42Google Scholar
  28. Brimijoin S, Heiland L (1976) Rapid retrograde transport of dopamine-ß- hydroxylase as examined by the stop-flow technique. Brain Res 102:217–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brimijoin WS, Hammond PI (1985) Acrylamide neuropathy in the rat: effects on energy metabolism in sciatic nerve. Mayo Clin Proc 60:3–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bugiani O, Ghetti B (1982) Progressing encephalomyelopathy with muscular atrophy, induced by aluminum powder. Neurobiol Aging 3:209–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Burton PR (1987) Microtubules of frog olfactory axons: their length and number/ axon. Brain Res 409:71–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Byers MR, Fink BR, Kennedy RD, Middaugh ME, Hendrickson AE (1973) Effects of lidocaine on axonal morphology microtubules and rapid transport in rabbit vagus nerve in vitro. J Neurobiol 4:25–43Google Scholar
  33. Carafoli E, Crompton M (1976) Calcium ions and mitochondria. Symp Soc Exp Biol 30:89–115Google Scholar
  34. Carafoli E, Crompton M (1978) The regulation of intracellular calcium by mitochondria. Ann NY Acad Sci 307:269–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cavanagh J, Chen F, Kyu M, Ridley A (1968) The experimental neuropathy in rats caused by p-bromophenylacetylurea. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 31:471–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cavanagh JB (1964) The significance of the “dying back” process in experimental and human neurological disease. Int Rev Exp Pathol 3:219–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cavanagh JB (1985) Peripheral nervous system toxicity: a morphological approach. In: Blum K, Manzo L (eds) Neurotoxicology. Dekker, New York, pp 1–44Google Scholar
  38. Chalfie M, Thomson JN (1979) Organization of neuronal microtubules in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J Cell Biol 82:278–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chan SY, Ochs S, Worth RM (1980a) The requirement for calcium ions and the effect of other ions on axoplasmic transport in mammalian nerve. J Physiol (Lond) 301:477–504Google Scholar
  40. Chan SY, Worth R, Ochs S (1980b) Block of axoplasmic transport in vitro by vinca alkaloids. J Neurobiol 11:251–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cho E, Schaumburg H, Spencer P (1977) Adriamycin produces ganglioradiculopathy in rats. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 36:597Google Scholar
  42. Chou S-M, Hartmann HA (1965) Electron microscopy of focal neuroaxonal lesions produced by β,β′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) in rats. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 4:590–603Google Scholar
  43. Clark AW, Griffin JW, Price DL (1980) The axonal pathology in chronic IDPN intoxication. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 39:42–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cohn SA, Ingold AL, Scholey JM (1987) Correlation between the ATPase and microtubule translocating activities of sea urchin egg kinesin. Nature 328:160–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dahlström A (1968) Effect of colchicine on transport of amine storage granules in sympathetic nerves of rat. Eur J Pharmacol 5:111–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dahlström A (1986) Axonal transport of neurotransmitter organelles in adrenergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic neurons. In: Iqbal Z (ed) Axoplasmic transport. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 119–146Google Scholar
  47. Donoso JA, Illanes J-P, Samson F (1977) Dimethylsulfoxide action on fast axoplasmic transport and ultrastructure of vagal axons. Brain Res 20:287–301Google Scholar
  48. Dulak L, Crist RD (1974) Microtubule properties in dimethylsulfoxide. J Cell Biol 63:90–98Google Scholar
  49. Dustin P (1984) Microtubules, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–482Google Scholar
  50. Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Lambert EH, Bunge R (1984) Peripheral neuropathy, vol 1, 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1–1165Google Scholar
  51. Edström A, Hanson M (1973) Retrograde axonal transport of. proteins in vitro in frog sciatic nerves. Brain Res 6:311–320Google Scholar
  52. Edström A, Mattsson H (1975) Small amounts of zinc stimulate rapid axonal transport in vitro. Brain Res 86:162–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Edström A, Mattsson H (1976) Inhibition and stimulation of rapid axonal transport in vitro by sulfhydryl blockers. Brain Res 108:381–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Edström A, Hansson H-A, Norstrom A (1973) Inhibition of axonal transport in vitro in frog sciatic nerves by chlorpromazine and lidocaine. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat 143:53–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ekström P, Kanje M, McLean WG (1987) The effects of trifluoperazine on fast and slow axonal transport in the rabbit vagus nerve. J Neurobiol 18:283–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Erdmann G, Wiegand H, Wellhoner HH (1975) Intraaxonal and extraaxonal transport of 125I-tetanus toxin in early local tetanus. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 290:357–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Esquerro E, Garcia AG, Sanchez-Garcia P (1980) The effects of the calcium ionophore A23187 on the axoplasmic transport of dopamine-ß-hydroxylase. Br J Pharmacol 70:375–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fahim MA, Lasek FJ, Brady ST, Hodge AJ (1985) AVEC-DIC and electron microscopic analyses of axonally transported particles in cold-blocked squid giant axons. J Neurocytol 14:689–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fink DJ, Purkiss D, Mata M (1986) Beta, beta′-Iminodipropionitrile impairs retrograde axonal transport. J Neurochem 47:1032–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Forman D (1982) Vanadate inhibits saltatory organelle movement in a permeabilized cell model. Exp Cell Res 141:139–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Forman DS, Shain WG Jr (1981) Batrachotoxin blocks saltatory organelle movement in electrically excitable neuroblastoma cells. Brain Res 211:242–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Forman D, Brown K, Livengood D (1983a) Fast axonal transport in permeabilized lobster giant axons is inhibited by vanadate. J Neurosci 3:1279–1288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Forman DS, Brown KJ, Promersberger ME (1983b) Selective inhibition of retrograde axonal transport by erythro-9 [3-(2-hydroxy-nonyl)] adenine. Brain Res 272:194–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gambetti P, Monaco S, Autilio-Gambetti L, Sayre LM (1986) Chemical neurotoxins accelerating axonal transport of neurofilaments. In: Clarkson TW, Sager PR, Syversen TLM (eds) The cytoskeleton: a target for toxic agents. Plenum, New York, pp 129–142Google Scholar
  65. Gan S-D, Fan M-M, He G-P (1986) The role of microtubules in axoplasmic transport in vivo. Brain Res 369:75–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gaziri LCJ, Ochs S (1983) Increased duration of axoplasmic transport in vitro with added glucose or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Soc Neurosci Abst 9:150Google Scholar
  67. Gelles J, Schnapp BJ, Sheetz MP (1988) Tracking kinesin-driven movements with nanometre-scale precision. Nature 331:450–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gerzon K (1980) Dimeric catharanthus alkaloids. In: Cassady JM, Douros JD (eds) Anticancer agents based on natural product models. Academic, New York, pp 271–317Google Scholar
  69. Gerzon K, Ochs S, Todd GC (1979) Polarity of vincristine (VCR), vindesine (VDS), and vinblastine (VLB) in relation to neurological effects. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res Abstr 20:46Google Scholar
  70. Ghetti B, Ochs S (1978) On the relation between microtubule density and axoplasmic transport in nerves treated with maytansine. In: Canal N, Pozza G (eds) Peripheral neuropathies. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 177Google Scholar
  71. Ghetti B, Alyea C, Norton J, Ochs S (1982) Effects of vinblastine on microtubule density in relation to axoplasmic transport. In: Weiss DG (ed) Axoplasmic transport. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York pp 322–327Google Scholar
  72. Gold BG, Griffin JW, Price DL (1985) Slow axonal transport in acrylamide neuropathy: different abnormalities produced by single-dose and continuous administration. J Neurosci 5:1755–1768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Grafstein B, Forman DS (1980) Intracellular transport in neurons. Physiol Rev 60:1167–1283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Griffin J, Watson D (1988) Axonal transport in neurological disease. Ann Neurol 23:3–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Griffin J, Price D, Spencer P (1977) Fast axonal transport through giant axonal swellings in hexacarbon neuropathies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 36:603Google Scholar
  76. Griffin JW, Hoffman PN, Clark AW, Carroll PT, Price DL (1978) Slow axonal transport of neurofilament proteins: impairment by β,β′-iminodipropionitrile administration. Science 202:633–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Griffin JW, Fahnestock KE, Price DL, Hoffman PN (1983) Microtubule- neurofilament segregation produced by beta, beta’-iminodipropionitrile: evidence for the association of fast axonal transport with microtubules. J Neurosci 3:557–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Griffin JW, Anthony DC, Fahnestock KE, Hoffman PN, Graham DG (1984) 3,4- Dimethyl-2,5-hexanedione impairs the axonal transport of neurofilament proteins. J Neurosci 4:1516–1526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gross GW, Beidler LM (1975) A quantitative analysis of isotope concentration profiles and rapid transport velocities in the C-fibers of the garfish olfactory nerve. J Neurobiol 6:213–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hammerschlag R, Brady ST (1989) Axonal transport and the neuronal cytoskeleton. In: Siegel G, Agranoff B, Albers RW, Molinoff P (eds) Basic neurochemistry, 4th edn. Raven, New York, pp 457–478Google Scholar
  81. Hammerschlag R, Stone GC (1986) Prelude to fast axonal transport: sequence of events in the cell body. In: Iqbal Z (ed) Axoplasmic transport. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 21–34Google Scholar
  82. Hammond GR, Smith RS (1977) Inhibition of the rapid movement of optically detectable axonal particles by colchicine and vinblastine. Brain Res 128:227–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hanson M, Edström A (1978) Mitosis inhibitors and axonal transport. Int Rev Cytol [Suppl]7:373–402Google Scholar
  84. Harry GJ, Goodrum JF, Bouldin TW, Toews AD, Morell P (1989) Acrylamide- induced increases in deposition of axonally transported glycoproteins in rat sciatic nerve. J Neurochem 52:1240–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Heath J, Ueda S, Bornstein M, Daves G, Raine C (1982) Buckthorn neuropathy in vitro: evidence for a primary neuronal effect. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2:204–220Google Scholar
  86. Heidemann SR, McIntosh JR (1980) Visualization of the structural polarity of microtubules. Nature 286:517–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hoffman PN, Lasek RJ (1975) The slow component of axonal transport. Identification of major structural polypeptides of the axon and their generality among mammalian neurons. J Cell Biol 66:351–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Horie H, Takenaka T, Inomata K (1981) Effects of antimitotic drugs on axoplasmic transport in tissue cultured nerve cells. Soc Neurosci Abstr 7:485Google Scholar
  89. Horie H, Takenaka T, Ito S, Kim U (1987) Taxol counteracts colchicine blockade of axonal transport in neurites of cultured dorsal root ganglion cells. Brain Res 420:144–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Horwitz S, Lothstein L, Manfredi J, Mellado W, Parness J, Roy S, Schiff P, Sorbara L, Zeheb R (1986) Taxol: mechanisms of actioh and resistance. Ann NY Acad Sci 466:733–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Inoue S, Sato H (1967) Cell mobility by labile association of molecules. The nature of mitotic spindle fibers and their role in chromosome movement. J Gen Physiol 50:259–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Iqbal Z (1986) Calmodulin and its role in axoplasmic transport. In: Iqbal Z (ed) Axoplasmic transport. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 45–55Google Scholar
  93. Iqbal Z, Ochs S (1980a) Calmodulin in mammalian nerve. J Neurobiol 11:311–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Iqbal Z, Ochs S (1980b) Uptake of vinca alkaloids into mammalian nerve and its subcellular components. J Neurochem 34:59–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Jakobsen J, Sidenius P (1979) Decreased axonal flux of retrogradely transported glycoproteins in early experimental diabetes. J Neurochem 33:1055–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Jakobsen J, Brimijoin S (1981) Axonal transport of enzymes and labeled proteins in experimental neuropathy induced by p-bromophenylacetylurea. Brain Res 229:103–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jakobsen J, Sidenius P (1983) Early and dose-dependent decrease of retrograde axonal transport in acrylamide-intoxicated rats. J Neurochem 40:447–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Jakobsen J, Brimijoin S, Skau K, Sidenius P (1981) Retrograde axonal transport of transmitter enzymes, fucose labelled proteins and nerve growth factor in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetes 30:797–803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Jakobsen J, Brimijoin S, Sidenius P (1983) Axonal transport in neuropathy. Muscle Nerve 6:164–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. James KAC, Austin L (1970) The effect of DFP on axonal transport of protein in chicken sciatic nerve. Brain Res 18:192–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Johnson M (1975) Organophosphorus esters causing delayed neurotoxic effects. Arch Toxicol 34:259–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kanje M (1986) Ionic requirements for fast axonal transport. In: Iqbal Z (ed) Axoplasmic transport. CRC Press, Boca Raton pp 35–43Google Scholar
  103. Kanje M, Edström A, Hanson M (1981) Inhibition of rapid axonal transport in vitro by the ionophores X-537 A and A 23187. Brain Res 204:43–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kanje M, Edström A, Edstrom P (1982) Divalent cations and fast axonal transport in chemically desheathed (Triton X-treated) frog sciatic nerve. Brain 241:67–74Google Scholar
  105. Kanje M, Deinum J, Wallin M, Ekström P, Edström A, Hartley-Asp B (1985) Effect of estramustine phosphate on the assembly of isolated bovine brain microtubules and fast axonal transport in the frog sciatic nerve. Cancer Res 45:2234–2239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kanje M, Ekström P, Deinum J, Wallin M (1986) The effect of gossypol on fast axonal transport and microtubule assembly. Biochim Biophys Acta 856: 437–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Karlsson J-O, Sjöstrand J (1971) Synthesis migration and turnover of protein in retinal ganglion cells. J Neurochem 18:749–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kato S, Yamamoto S, Iwasaki Y, Niizuma H, Nakamura T, Suzuki J (1988) Experimental retrograde adriamycin trigeminal sensory ganglionectomy. J Neurosurg 69:760–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Klatzo I, Wisniewski H, Streicher E (1965) Experimental production of neurofibrillary degeneration. I. Light microscopic observations. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 24:187–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Knyihár-Csillik E, Szücs A, Csillik B (1982) Iontophoretically applied microtubule inhibitors induce transganglionic degenerative atrophy of primary central nociceptive terminals and abolish chronic autochthonous pain. Acta Neurol Scand 66:401–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kreutzberg GW (1969) Neuronal dynamics and axonal flow IV. Blockage of intra- axonal enzyme transport by colchicine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 62:722–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kristensson K (1978) Retrograde transport of macromolecules in axons. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 18:97–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kristensson K, Lycke E, Sjöstrand J (1971) Spread of herpes simplex virus in peripheral nerves. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 19:44–53Google Scholar
  114. Lariviere L, Lavoie P-A (1982) Calcium requirement for fast axonal transport in frog motoneurons. J Neurochem 39:882–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lasek RJ (1967) Bidirectional transport of radioactively labelled axoplasmic components. Nature 216:1212–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lasek RJ, Hoffman PN (1976) The neuronal cytoskeleton, axonal transport and axonal growth. In: Goldman R, Pollard T, Rosenbaum J (eds) Cell motility (book C). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 1021–1049Google Scholar
  117. Lasek RJ, Katz MJ (1987) Mechanisms at the axon tip regulate metabolic processes critical to axonal elongation. Prog Brain Res 71:49–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Lasek RJ, Garner JA, Brady ST (1984) Axonal transport of the cytoplasmic matrix. J Cell Biol 99:212–221Google Scholar
  119. Lavoie P-A (1982) Inhibition of fast axonal transport in vitro by tetracaine: an increase in potency at alkaline pH and no change in potency in calcium-depleted nerves. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 60:1715–1720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Lavoie P-A, Tiberi M (1986) Inhibition of fast axonal transport in bullfrog nerves by dibenzazepine and dibenzocycloheptadiene calmodulin inhibitors. J Neurobiol 17:681–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Lavoie P-A, Collier B, Tenenhouse A (1976) Comparison of alpha-bungarotoxin binding to skeletal muscles after inactivity or denervation. Nature 260:349–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Lavoie P-A, Bolen F, Hammerschlag R (1979) Divalent cation specificity of the calcium requirement for fast transport of proteins in axons of desheathed nerves. J Neurochem 32:1745–1751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lavoie P-A, Khazen T, Filion PR (1989) Mechanisms of the inhibition of fast axonal transport by local anesthetics. Neuropharmacology 28:175–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Lees GJ (1985) Inhibition of the retrograde axonal transport of dopamine- beta-hydroxylase antibodies by the calcium ionophore A23187. Brain Res 345:62–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Leone J, Ochs S (1978) Anoxic block and recovery of axoplasmic transport and electrical excitability of nerve. J Neurobiol 9:229–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Levi-Montalcini R (1976) The nerve growth factor: its role in growth differentiation and function of the sympathetic adrenergic neuron. Prog Brain Res 45:235–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Lim S-S, Sammak PJ, Borisy GG (1989) Progressive and spatially differentiated stability of microtubules in developing neuronal cells. J Cell Biol 109:253–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Lim S-S, Edson KJ, Letourneau PC, Borisy GG (1990) A test of microtubule translocation during neurite elongation. J Cell Biol 111:123–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Liwnicz BH, Kristensson K, Wisniewski HM, Shelanski ML, Terry RD (1974) Observations on axoplasmic transport in rabbits with aluminum-induced neurofibrillary tangles. Brain Res 80:413–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Macioce P, Filliatreau G, Figliomeni B, Hassig R, Thiery J, Di Giamberardino L (1989) Slow axonal transport impairment of cytoskeletal proteins in streptozocin-induced diabetic neuropathy. J Neurochem 53:1261–1267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. McEwen BS, Grafstein B (1968) Fast and slow components in axonal transport of protein. J Cell Biol 38:494–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. McLane JA (1987) Decreased axonal transport in rat nerve following acute and chronic ethanol exposure. Alcohol 4:385–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. McLane JA (1990) Retrograde axonal transport in chronic ethanol-fed and thiamine- deficient rats. Alcohol 7:103–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Mellon M, Rhebun L, Rosenbaum J (1976) Studies on the accessible sulfhydryls of polymerizable tubulin. In: Goldman R, Pollard T, Rosenbaum J (eds) Cell motility (book C). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 1149–1163Google Scholar
  135. Mendell JR, Sahenk Z (1980) Interference of neuronal processing and axoplasmic transport by toxic chemicals. In: Spencer PS, Schaumburg HH (eds) Neurotoxicology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 139–160Google Scholar
  136. Mendell JR, Sahenk Z, Saida K, Weiss HS, Savage R, Couri D (1977) Alterations of fast axoplasmic transport in experimental methyl n-butyl ketone neuropathy. Brain Res 133:107–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Mildvan AS (1970) Metals in enzyme catalsis vol II. In: Boyer PD (ed) The enzymes, 3rd edn. Academic, New York, pp 445–536Google Scholar
  138. Miller MS, Spencer PS (1984) Single doses of acrylamide reduce retrograde transport velocity. J Neurochem 43:1401–1408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Miller MS, Spencer PS (1985) The mechanisms of acrylamide axonopathy. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 25:643–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Mobley WC, Sever AC, Ishii DN, Riopelle RJ, Shooter EM (1977) Nerve growth factor. N Engl J Med 297:1096–1104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Monaco S, Jacob J, Jenich H, Patton A, Autilio-Gambetti L, Gambetti P (1989) Axonal transport of neurofilament is accelerated in peripheral nerve during 2,5-hexanedione intoxication. Brain Res 491:328–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Moretto A, Sabri MI (1988) Progressive deficits in retrograde axon transport precede degeneration of motor axons in acrylamide neuropathy. Brain Res 440: 18–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Moretto A, Lotti M, Sabri MI, Spencer PS (1987) Progressive deficit of retrograde axonal transport is associated with the pathogenesis of di-n-butyl dichlorvos axonopathy. J Neurochem 49:1515–1522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mori H, Komiya Y, Kurokawa M (1979) Slowly migrating axonal polypeptides. Inequalities in their rate and amount of transport between two branches of bifurcating axons. J Cell Biol 82:74–84Google Scholar
  145. Muñoz-Martínez EJ (1982) Axonal retention of transported material and the lability of nerve terminals. In: Weiss DG (ed) Axoplasmic transport. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 267–274Google Scholar
  146. Muñoz-Martínez EJ, Núñez R, Sanderson A (1981) Axonal transport: a quantitative study of retained and transported protein fraction in the cat. J Neurobiol 12:15–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Muñoz-Martínez EJ, Massieu D, Ochs S (1984) Depression of fast axonal transport produced by Tullidora. J Neurobiol 15:375–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Narahashi T, Albuquerque EX, Deguchi T (1971) Effects of batrachotoxin on membrane potential and conductance of squid giant axons. J Gen Physiol 58:54–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Nennesmo I, Kristensson K (1986) Effects of retrograde axonal transport of Ricinus communis agglutinin I on neuroma formation. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 70:279–283Google Scholar
  150. Nichols TR, Smith RS, Snyder RE (1982) The action of puromycin and cycloheximide on the initiation of rapid axonal transport in amphibian dorsal root neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 332:441–458Google Scholar
  151. Nixon RA (1991) Axonal transport of cytoskeletal proteins. In: Burgoyne, R (ed) The Neuronal Cytoskeleton, Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 283–307Google Scholar
  152. Nixon R, Logvinenko KB (1985) Multiple fates of newly synthesized neurofilament proteins: evidence for a stationary neurofilament network distributed nonuniformly along axons of retinal ganglion cell neurons. J Cell Biol 102:647–658Google Scholar
  153. Nixon RA, Fischer I, Lewis SE (1990) Synthesis, axonal transport and turnover of the high molecular weight microtubule associated protein MAP 1A in mouse retinal ganglion cells: tubulin and MAP 1A display distinct transport kinetics J Cell Biol 110:437–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Ochs S (1971) Characteristics and a model for fast axoplasmic transport in nerve. J Neurobiol 2:331–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Ochs S (1972) Rate of fast axoplasmic transport in mammalian nerve fibres. J Physiol (Lond) 227: 627–645Google Scholar
  156. Ochs S (1974a) Retention and redistribution of fast and slow axoplasmic transported proteins in mammalian nerve. 3rd international congress on muscle disease. Abstr Excerpta Med Int Congr Ser 334:26Google Scholar
  157. Ochs S (1974b) Energy metabolism and supply of ~ P to the fast axoplasmic transport mechanism in nerve. Fed Proc 33:1049–1058Google Scholar
  158. Ochs S (1974c) Systems of material transport in nerve fibers (axoplasmic transport) related to nerve function and trophic control. Ann NY Acad Sci 228:202–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Ochs S (1975) Retention and redistribution of proteins in mammalian nerve fibres by axoplasmic transport. J Physiol (Lond) 253:459–475Google Scholar
  160. Ochs S (1980) Calcium requirement for axoplasmic transport and the role of the perineurial sheath. In: Jewett DL, McCarroll HR Jr (eds) Nerve repair and regeneration. Mosby, St Louis, pp 77–88Google Scholar
  161. Ochs S (1982) Axoplasmic transport and its relation to other nerve functions, 1st edn. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 1–462Google Scholar
  162. Ochs S, Hollingsworth D (1971) Dependence of fast axoplasmic transport in nerve on oxidative metabolism. J Neurochem 18:107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Ochs S, Iqbal Z (1983) The role of calcium in axoplasmic transport in nerve. In: Cheung WY (ed) Calcium and cell function, vol 3. Academic, New York, pp 325–354Google Scholar
  164. Ochs S, Jersild RA Jr (1974) Fast axoplasmic transport in nonmyelinated mammalian nerve fibers shown by electron microscopic radioautography. J Neurobiol 5:373–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Ochs S, Jersild RA Jr (1985) Beading of nerve fibers and fast axoplasmic transport. Soc Neurosci Abstr 11:1135Google Scholar
  166. Ochs S, Jersild RA Jr (1987) Cytoskeletal organelles and myelin structure of beaded nerve fibers. Neuroscience 22:1041–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Ochs S, Smith CB (1971) Fast axoplasmic transport in mammalian nerve in vitro after block of glycolysis with iodoacetic acid. J Neurochem 8:833–843Google Scholar
  168. Ochs S, Worth R (1975) Batrachotoxin block of fast axoplasmic transport in mammalian nerve fibers. Science 87:87–89Google Scholar
  169. Ochs S, Johnson J, Ng M-H (1967) Protein incorporation and axoplasmic flow in motoneuron fibres following intra-cord injection of labeled leucine. J Neurochem 4:3–7Google Scholar
  170. Ochs S, Sabri MI, Ranish N (1970) Somal site of synthesis of fast transported materials in mammalian nerve fibers. J Neurobiol 1:329–344Google Scholar
  171. Ochs S, Jersild RA, Jr Li J-M (1989) Slow transport of freely movable cytoskeletal components shown by beading partition of nerve fibers. Neuroscience 33:421–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Oka N, Brimijoin S (1990) Premature onset of fast axonal transport in bromophenylacetylurea neuropathy: an electrophoretic analysis of proteins exported into motor nerve. Brain Res 509:107–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Okabe S, Hirokawa N (1988) Microtubule dynamics in nerve cells: Analysis using microinjection of biotinylated tubulin into PC12 cells. J Cell Biol 107:651–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Okabe S, Hirokawa N (1990) Turnover of fluorescently labelled tubulin and actin in the axon. Nature 343:479–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Papasozomenos SC (1986) Reorganization of axonal cytoskeleton following b,b’- iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) intoxication. In: Clarkson TW, Sager PR, Syversen TLM (eds) The cytoskeleton - a target for toxic agents. Plenum, New York, pp 67–82Google Scholar
  176. Papasozomenos SC, Autilio-Gambetti L, Gambetti P (1981) Reorganization of axoplasmic organelles following β,β′-iminodipropionitrile administration. J Cell Biol 91:866–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Papasozomenos SC, Autilio-Gambetti L, Gambetti P (1982a) The IDPN axon: rearrangement of axonal cytoskeleton and organelles following β,β′- iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) intoxication. In: Weiss DG (ed) Axoplasmic transport. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 241–250Google Scholar
  178. Papasozomenos SC, Yoon M, Crane R, Autilio-Gambetti L, Gambetti P (1982b) Redistribution of proteins of fast axonal transport following administration of β,β′-iminodipropionitrile: a quantitative autoradiographic study. J Cell Biol 95:672–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Pappolla M, Penton R, Weiss HS, Miller CH Jr, Sahenk Z, Autilio-Gambetti L, Gambetti L (1987) Carbon disulfide axonopathy. Another experimental model characterized by acceleration of neurofilament transport and distinct changes of axonal size. Brain Res 424:272–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Paulson JC, McClure WO (1975) Inhibition of axoplasmic transport by colchicine, podophyllotoxin and vinblastine: an effect on microtubules. Ann NY Acad Sci 253:517–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Pestronk A, Drachman DB, Griffin JW (1976) Effect of muscle disuse on acetylcholine receptors. Nature 260:352–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Pleasure DE, Mishler KC, Engle WK (1969) Axonal transport of proteins in experimental neuropathies. Science 66:524–525Google Scholar
  183. Price DL, Griffin J, Young A, Peck K, Stocks A (1975) Tetanus toxin: direct evidence for retrograde intraaxonal transport. Science 88:945–947Google Scholar
  184. Reese TS (1987) The molecular basis of axonal transport in the squid giant axon. In: Kandel ER (ed) Molecular neurobiology in neurology and psychiatry. Raven Press, New York, pp 89–102Google Scholar
  185. Roots BI (1983) Neurofilament accumulation induced in synapses by leupeptin. Science 221:971–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Roytta M, Raine C (1985) Taxol-induced neuropathy: further ultrastructural studies of nerve fibre changes in situ. J Neurocytol 14:157–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Rubinow SI, Blum JJ (1980) A theoretical approach to the analysis of axonal transport. Biophys J 30:137–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Sabri MI, Ochs S (1971) Inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in mammalian nerve by iodoacetic acid. J Neurochem 8:1509–1514Google Scholar
  189. Sabri MI, Ochs S (1972) Relation of ATP and creatine phosphate to fast axoplasmic transport in mammalian nerve. J Neurochem 9:2821–2828Google Scholar
  190. Sabri MI, Spencer PS (1990) Acrylamide impairs fast and slow axonal transport in rat optic system. Neurochem Res 15:603–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Sabri M, Dairman W, Fenton M, Juhasz L, Ng T, Spencer P (1989) Effect of exogenous pyruvate on acrylamide neuropathy in rats. Brain Res 483:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Sahenk Z, Lasek RJ (1988) Inhibition of proteolysis blocks anterograde-retrograde conversion of axonally transported vesicles. Brain Res 460:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Sahenk Z, Mendell J (1979a) Ultrastructural study of zinc pyridinethione-induced peripheral neuropathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58:532–550Google Scholar
  194. Sahenk Z, Mendell JR (1979b) Analysis of fast axoplasmic transport in nerve ligation and adriamycin-induced neuronal perikaryon lesions. Brain Res 171:41–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Sahenk Z, Mendell JR (1980) Axoplasmic transport in zinc pyridinethione neuropathy: evidence for an abnormality in distal turn-around. Brain Res 186:343–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Sahenk Z, Mendell JR (1981) Acrylamide and 2,5-hexanedione neuropathies: abnormal bidirectional transport rate in distal axons. Brain Res 219:397–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Sammak PJ, Borisy GG (1988) Direct observation of microtubule dynamics in living cells. Nature 332:724–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Sammak PJ, Gorbsky GJ, Borisy GG (1987) Microtubule dynamics in vivo: a test of mechanisms of turnover. J Cell Biol 104:395–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Schlaepfer WW (1974) Calcium-induced degeneration of axoplasm in isolated segments of rat peripheral nerve. Brain Res 69:203–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Schlaepfer WW, Hasler MB (1979) Characterization of the calcium-induced disruption of neurofilaments in rat peripheral nerves. Brain Res 68:299–309Google Scholar
  201. Schmidt RE, Grabau GG, Yip HK (1986) Retrograde axonal transport of [125I] nerve growth factor in ileal mesenteric nerves in vitro: effect of streptozotocin diabetes. Brain Res 378:325–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Schwab ME, Thoenen H (1978) Selective binding, uptake and retrograde transport of tetanus toxin by nerve terminals in the rat iris. J Cell Biol 77:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Schwab ME, Agid Y Glowinski J, Thoenen H (1977) Retrograde axonal transport of 125I-tetanus toxin as a tool for tracing fiber connections in the central nervous system: connections of the rostral part of the rat neostriatum. Brain Res 126:211–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Schwab ME, Heumann R, Thoenen H (1982) Communication between target organs and nerve cells: retrograde axonal transport and site of action of nerve growth factor. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 46:125–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sheetz MP, Steuer ER, Schroer TA (1989) The mechanism and regulation of fast axonal transport. Trends Neurosci 12:474–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Shpetner HS, Paschal BM, Vallee RB (1988) Characterization of the microtubule- activated ATPase of brain cytoplasmic dynein (MAP 1C). J Cell Biol 107:1001–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Sickles DW (1989a) Toxic neurofilamentous axonopathies and fast anterograde axonal transport. I. The effects of single doses of acrylamide on the rate and capacity of transport. Neurotoxicology 10:91–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sickles DW (1989b) Toxic neurofilamentous axonopathies and fast anterograde axonal transport. II. The effects of single doses of neurotoxic and nonneurotoxic diketones and beta, beta′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) on the rate and capacity of transport. Neurotoxicology 10:103–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Sidenius P (1982) The axonopathy of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 31:356–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Sidenius P, Jakobsen J (1983) Anterograde axonal transport in rats during intoxication with acrylamide. J Neurochem 40:697–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Sidenius P, Jakobsen J (1987) Axonal transport in human and experimental diabetes. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Asbury AK, Winegrade AI, Porte D Jr (eds) Diabetic neuropathy. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 260–265Google Scholar
  212. Sjöstrand J, Karlsson J-O (1969) Axoplasmic transport in the optic nerve and tract of the rabbit: a biochemical and radioautographic study. J Neurochem 6:833–844Google Scholar
  213. Smith FP, Kato S, Yamamoto T, Iwasaki Y (1989) Retrograde transport of adriamycin. J Neurosurg 70:819–820 (abstract)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Smith RS (1980) The short term accumulation of axonally transported organelles in the region of localized lesions of single myelinated axons. J Neurocytol 9:39–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Smith RS (1982) Axonal transport of optically detectable particulate organelles. In: Weiss DG (ed) Axoplasmic transport. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 181–192Google Scholar
  216. Smith RS, Snyder RE (1991) Reversal of rapid axonal transport at a lesion: leu-peptin inhibits reversed protein transport, but does not inhibit reversed organelle transport. Brain Res 552:215–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Snyder RE (1986) The kinematics of turnaround and retrograde axonal transport. J Neurobiol 17:637–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Spencer PS, Schaumburg HH (1980) Experimental and clinical neurotoxicology, 1st edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1–929Google Scholar
  219. Spencer PS, Sabri MI, Schaumburg HH, Moore CL (1979) Does a defect of energy metabolism in the nerve fiber underlie axonal degeneration in polyneuropathies? Ann Neurol 5:501–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Spencer PS, Couri D, Schaumburg HH (1980) n-Hexane and methyl-n-butyl ketone. In: Spencer PS, Schaumburg HH (eds) Experimental and clinical neurotoxicology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 456–475Google Scholar
  221. Takenaka T, Gotoh H (1984) Simulation of axoplasmic transport. J Theor Biol 107:579–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Takenaka T, Inomata K, Horie H (1982) Slow axoplasmic transport of labeled protein in sciatic nerves of streptozotocin-diabetic rats and methylcobalamin treated rats. In: Goto Y, Horiuchi A, Kogure K (eds) Diabetic neuropathy. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 99–103Google Scholar
  223. Tashiro T, Komiya Y (1987) Organization of cytoskeletal proteins transported in the axon. In: Smith RS, Bisby MA (eds) Axonal transport. Liss, New York, pp 201–221Google Scholar
  224. Tiberi M, Lavoie P-A (1985) Inhibition of the retrograde axonal transport of acetylcholinesterase by the anti-calmodulin agents amitriptyline and desipramine. J Neurobiol 16:245–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Triarhou LC, Norton J, Bugiani O, Ghetti B (1985) Ventral root axonopathy and its relation to the neurofibrillary degeneration of lower motor neurons in aluminum-induced encephalomyelopathy. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 11:407–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Tsukita S, Ishikawa H (1980) The movement of membranous organelles in axons. Electron microscopic identification of anterogradely and retrogradely transported organelles. J Cell Biol 84:513–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Vale RD (1987) Intracellular transport using microtubule-based motors. Annu Rev Biol 3:347–378Google Scholar
  228. Vale RD, Schnapp BJ, Mitchison T, Steuer E, Reese TS, Sheetz MP (1985) Different axoplasmic proteins generate movement in opposite directions along microtubules in vitro. Cell 43:623–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Vallee RB, Shpetner HS, Paschal BM (1989) The role of dynein in retrograde axonal transport Trends Neurosci 12:66–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Watson DF, Hoffman PN, Fittro KP, Griffin JW (1989) Neurofilament and tubulin transport slows along the course of mature motor axons. Brain Res 477:225–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Weiss HD, Walker MD, Wiernik PH (1974) Neurotoxicity of commonly used antineoplastic agents. N Engl J Med 291:127–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Weiss P, Hiscoe HB (1948) Experiments on the mechanism of nerve growth. J Exp Zool 107:315–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Weller RO, Mitchell J, Daves GD Jr (1980) Buckthorn (Karwinskia humboldtiand) toxins. In: Spencer PS Schaumburg HH (eds) Experimental and clinical neurotoxicity, vol 1. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 336–347Google Scholar
  234. Wiley RG, Stirpe F (1988) Modeccin and volkensin but not abrin are effective suicide transport agents in rat CNS. Brain Res 438:145–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Wiley RG, Blessing WW, Reis DJ (1982) Suicide transport: destruction of neurons by retrograde transport of ricin, abrin and modeccin. Science 216:889–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Willard MB, Hulebak KL (1977) The intra-axonal transport of polypeptide H: evidence for a fifth (very slow) group of transported proteins in the retinal ganglion cells of the rabbit. Brain Res 36:289–306Google Scholar
  237. Willard M, Cowan WM, Vagelos PR (1974) The polypeptide composition of intra- axonally transported proteins: evidence for four transport velocities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:2183–2187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Wisniewski HM, Sturman JA, Shek JW (1979) Aluminum chloride induced neurofibrillary changes in the developing rabbit: a chronic animal model. Ann Neurol 8:479–490Google Scholar
  239. Worth RM, Ochs S (1982) Dependence of batrachotoxin block of axoplasmic transport on sodium. J Neurobiol 13:537–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Yamamoto T, Iwasaki Y, Konno H (1984a) Experimental sensory ganglionectomy by way of suicide axoplasmic transport. J Neurosurg 60:108–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Yamamoto T, Iwasaki Y, Konno H (1984b) Retrograde axoplasmic transport of adriamycin: an experimental form of motor neuron disease? Neurology 34:1299–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Ochs

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations