Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin and C. botulinum C3 ADP-Ribosyltransferase
At least eight botulinum toxins (A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F, and G) are produced by the different types of Clostridium botulinum (Habermann and Dreyer 1986). With the exception of C2 toxin, seven are neurotoxins which presynaptically inhibit neurotransmitter release. To date, the molecular mechanism of the action of these most potent neurotoxins is unknown. C. botulinum C2 toxin is not a neurotoxin but acts on various peripheral cells (Simpson 1982; Ohishi et al. 1984). It belongs to a novel family of ADP-ribosylating toxins which modify actin (Aktories et al. 1986a,b). Besides C2 toxin, various strains of C. botulinum type C and D produce another ADP-ribosyltransferase, which was called C3 (Aktories et al. 1987a). This exoenzyme ADP-ribosylates low molecular mass GTP binding proteins. In this chapter, both clostridial ADP-ribosyltransferases are described in more detail.
KeywordsHydrolysis Arginine Histamine Trypsin Noradrenaline
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