Botulinum Toxin: Structure and Pharmacology

  • P. Hambleton
Conference paper


Strains of Clostridium botulinum produce seven antigenically distinct neurotoxic proteins (neurotoxins types A—G) that act primarily at peripheral cholinergic synapses blocking release of the neurotransmitter substance acetylcholine. This gives rise to Botulism, a rare but often fatal disease of man and other animals. The symptoms of the disease are a symmetrical, descending paralysis with impaired vision, dysphagia, widespread muscular weakness and, ultimately, death from respiratory failure. In humans, the most common cause of the disease is the ingestion of food containing pre-formed toxin produced as a result of the germination of contaminating C. botulinum spores and subsequent primarily with types A, B and E toxins, with type F responsible for a minority of outbreaks only.


Botulinum Toxin Toxin Gene Botulinum Neurotoxin Focal Dystonia Spasmodic Torticollis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Hambleton
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of BiologicsPHLS CAMRSalisbury, WiltshireUK

Personalised recommendations