Acute Respiratory Failure in Infants and Children: Status Report on Gas Exchange Techniques and Outcome

  • D.  G. Nichols
Part of the Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 1994 book series (YEARBOOK, volume 1994)


Although ARDS may present as a multisystem disorder with a diffuse inflammatory response and circulatory defects, the major pathology is in the lung, and therapy has concentrated on respiratory support. Despite the similar pathophysiology of ARDS in children as in adults, a separate review of ARDS in children appears warranted because lung mechanics, underlying diseases, and gas exchange techniques may depend on the age and size of the patient. Furthermore, different gas exchange techniques may be associated with different outcome results in children. This chapter will focus on lung mechanics in ARDS which dictate mechanical ventilatory techniques, outcomes achieved with conventional volume-preset mechanical ventilation (MV) techniques, and the rationale and methods for “new” modes of MV and for ECMO.


Acute Respiratory Failure Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Lung Mechanic High Frequency Oscillatory Ventila 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

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  • D.  G. Nichols

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