Does Indirect Calorimetry Reflect Energy Expenditure in the Critically Ill Patient?

  • R. L. Chioléro
  • D. Bracco
  • J. P. Revelly
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 17)

Abstract

Energy processes intimately linked to life in all its manifestations. They are essential to perform such diverse functions as to adapt to changes in the environment, to grow, to move and to reproduce. This is also true in healthy humans and during acute illness, where reduced energy production may be related to the fatal autcome.

Keywords

Combustion Carbohydrate Respiration Bicarbonate Calorimetry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kleiber M (1975) The fire of life: An introduction to animal energetics. RE Kreiger Inc:pp 116Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bland R, Shoemaker W (1985) Common physiologic pattern in general surgical patients: Hemodynamic and oxygen transport changes during and after operation in patients with and without associated medical problems. Surg Clin North Am 65:793–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wilson R, Christensen C, LeBlanc L (1972) Oxygen consumption in critically ill surgical patients. Ann Surg 176:801–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shoemaker W, Kram H, Appel P, Flemming A (1990) The efficacy of central venous and pulmonary artery catheters and therapy based upon them in reducing mortality and morbidity. Arch Surg 125:1332–1338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Edwards J (1989) Optimal levels of oxygen transport in critically ill patients. In: Vincent JL (ed) Update in intensive care and emergency medicine, Vol 8. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 205–214Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shoemaker W, Appel P, Kram H, Waxman K, Lee T (1988) Prospective trial of supranormal values of survivors as therapeutic goals in high-risk surgical patients. Chest 94:1176–1186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bursztein S, Elwyn DH, Askanazi J, Kinney JM (1989) Energy metabolism, indirect calorimetry, and nurtrition. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pahud P, Ravussin E, Jéquier E (1980) Energy expended during deficit period of submaximal exercise in man. J Appl Physiol 48:770–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jéquier E, Flatt J (1986) Recent advances in human energetics. News Physiol Sciences 1:112–114Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferrannini E (1988) The theoretical bases of indirect calorimetry. A review. Metabolism 37:287–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jéquier E, Schutz Y (1983) Long-term measurements of energy expenditure in human using a respiration chamber. Am J Clin Nutr 38:989–998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jéquier E, Felber J (1987) Indirect calorimetry. Baillière’s Clin Endocr Metab 1:911–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jéquier E, Acheson K, Schutz Y (1987) Assessment of energy expenditure and fuel utilization in man. Ann Rev Nutr 7:187–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jéquier E (1984) Energy expenditure in obesity. Clin Endocr Metab 13:563–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Spurr G, Prentice A, Murgatroyd P, Goldberg G, Reina J, Christman N (1988) Energy expenditure from minute heart rate recording: Comparison with indirect calorimetry. Am J Clin Nutr 48:552–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Durnin J, Edward R (1955) Pulmonary ventilation as an index of energy expenditure. Quart J Expt Physiol 40:370–377Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ford A, Hellerstein A (1959) Estimation of energy expenditure from pulmonary ventilation. J Appl Physiol 14:981–984Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harding R, Sen R (1970) Evaluation of total muscular activity by quantification of electro-myograms, through a summing amplifier. Med Biol Erg 8:343–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stunkard A (1960) A method of studying physical activity in man. Am J Clin Nutr 8:595–601Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Coward W, Prentice A (1985) Isotope method for the measurement of carbon dioxide production in man. Am J Clin Nutr 41:659–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schoeller D, van Stanten E (1982) Measurement of energy expenditure in man by doubly-labelled water method. J Appl Physiol 53:955–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spinnler G, Jéquier E, Favre R, Dolivo M, Vanotti A (1973) Human calorimeter with a new type of gradient layer. J Appl Physiol 35:159–165Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frascarolo P, Schutz Y, Jéquier E (1990) Decreased thermal conductance during the lutheal phase of the menstrual cycle in women. J Appl Physiol 69:2029–2033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Livesey G, Elia M (1988) Estimation of energy expenditure, net carbohydrate utilization, and net fat oxidation and synthesis by indirect calorimetry: Evaluation of errors with special reference to the detailed composition of foods. Am J Clin Nutr 47:608–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bursztein S, Saphar P, Singer P, Elwyn D (1989) A mathematical analysis of indirect calorimetry measurements in acutely ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 50:227–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Behrends W, Weiland C, Giani J (1987) Continuous measurement of oxygen uptake: Evaluation of the Enström metabolic computer and clinical experiences. Acta Anaes- thesiol Scand 31:10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bizouarn P, Soulard D, Blanloeil Y, Guillet A, Goarin Y (1992) Oxygen consumption after cardiac surgery: A comparison between calculation by Fick’s principle and measurement by indirect calorimetry. Intensive Care Med 18:206–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brandi L, Grana M, Mazzanti T, Giunta F, Natali A, Ferrannini E (1992) Energy expenditure and gas exchange measurements in postoperative patients: Thermodilution versus indirect calorimetry. Crit Care Med 20:1273–1283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chioléro R, Mavrocordatos P, Bracco D, Schutz Y, Cayeux C, Revelly J (1993) Cold iced injectate should not be used to assess O2 consumption in acutelly ill patients (submitted)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Myburgh J, Webb R, Worthley L (1992) Ventilation/perfusion indices do not correlate with the difference between oxygen consumption measured by the Fick principle and metabolic monitoring systems in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 20:479–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vermeij C, Feenstra B, Bruining H (1990) Oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake in postoperative and septic patients. Chest 98:415–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ronco J, Phang T, Walley K, Wiggs B, Fenwick J, Russel J (1991) Oxygen consumption is independent of changes in oxygen delivery in severe adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:1267–1273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Damask M, Schwarz Y, Weissman C (1987) Energy measurements and requirements of critically ill patients. Crit Care Clin 3:71–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ultman J, Bursztein S (1981) Analysis of error in the determination of respiratory gas exchange at varying FiO2. J Appl Physiol 50:210–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eccles R, Swinamer D, Jones R, King G (1986) Validation of a compact system for measuring gas exchange. Crit Care Med 64:807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Westenskow D, Cutler C, Wallace W (1984) Instrumentation for monitoring gas exchange and metabolic rate in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 12:183–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Makita K, Nunn J, Royston B (1990) Evaluation of metabolic measuring instruments for use in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 18:638–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Phang P, Rich T, Ronco J (1990) A validation and comparison study of two metabolic monitors. JPEN 14:259–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weissman C, Sardar A, Kemper M (1990) Techniques, materials, and devices. JPEN 14:216–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takala J, Keinänen O, Väisänen P, Karl A (1989) Measurement of gas exchange in intensive care: Laboratory and clinical validation of a new device. Crit Care Med 17:1041–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weinsier RL, Schutz Y, Bracco D (1992) Reexamination of the relationship of resting metabolic rate to fat-free mass and to the metabolically active components of fat-free mass in human. Am J Clin Nutr 55:790–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Grande F, Keys A (1980) Body weight, body composition, and calorie status. In: Goodhart R, Shils M (eds) Modern nutrition in health and disease, 6 edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, pp 3–34Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Boyd O, Grounds M, Bennett D (1992) The dependency of oxygen consumption on oxygen delivery in critically ill postoperative patients is mimicked by variations in sedation. Chest 101:1619–1624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dempsey D, Guenter P, Mullen J, et al (1985) Energy expenditure in acute trauma to the head with and without barbiturate therapy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 16:128–134Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Clifton G, Robertson C, Choi S (1986) Assessment of nutritional requirements of head- injured patients. J Neurosurg 64: 895–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vaisman N, Rossi MF, Goldberg E, Dibden L, Wykes LJ, Pencharz PB (1988) Energy expenditure and body composition in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Pediatr 113:919–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Casper R, Schoeller D, Kuschner R, Hnilicka J, Gold S (1991) Total daily energy expenditure and activity level in anorexia nervosa. Am J Clin Nutr 53:1143–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Melchior J, Rigaud D, Rozen R, Malon D, Apfelbaum M (1989) Energy expenditure economy induced by decrease in lean body mass in anorexia nervosa. Eur J Clin Nutr 43:793–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chioléro R, Lemarchand T (1992) Modifications hormonales après traumatisme crânien sévère. In: Boles JJ (ed) Conséquences endocriniennes des états d’agression aiguë. Arnette, Paris pp 79–90Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chioléro R, Schutz Y, Lemarchand T, et al (1989) Hormonal and metabolic changes following severe head injury or noncranial injury. JPEN 13:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Simonson DC, DeFronzo RA (1990) Indirect calorimetry: Methodological and interpretative problems. Am J Physiol 258:E399–E412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rosenblatt J, Wolfe R (1988) Calculation of substrate flux using stable isotopes. Am J Physiol 254:E526–E531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Irwing C, Wong W, Shulman R, O’Brian Smith E, Klein P (1983) 13C bicarbonate kinetics in human: Intra-vs interindividual variations. Am J Physiol 245 : R190–R202Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Weissmann C, Hyman A (1987) Nutritional care of the critically ill patient with respiratory failure. Crit Care Clin 3:185–202Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wilson D, Rogers R, Hoffman R (1985) Nutrition and chronic lung disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 132:1347–1365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lewis W, Chwals W, Benotti P, et al (1988) Bedside assessment of the work of breathing. Crit Care Med 16:117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shikora S, Bistrian B, Borlase B, Blackburne G, Stone M, Benotti P (1990) Work of breathing: Reliable predictor of weaning and extubation. Crit Care Med 18:157–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Talpers S, Romberger D, Bunce S, Pingleton S (1992) Nutritionally associated increased carbon dioxide production. Excess total calories vs high proportion of carbohydrate calories. Chest 102:551–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chioléro RL, Revelly JP, Jéquier E (1991) Effects of catecholamines on oxygen consumption and oxygen delivery in critically ill patients. Chest 100:1676–1684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chioléro R, Breitenstein E, Thorin D, et al (1989) Effects of propranolol on resting metabolic rate after severe head injury. Crit Care Med 17:328–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Breitenstein E, Chioléro R, Jéquier E, Dayer P, Krupp S, Schutz Y (1990) Effects of beta-blockade on energy metabolism following bums. Burns 16:259–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wolfe R, Herndon DN, Jahoor F, Miyosi H, Wolfe M (1987) Effect of severe burn injury on substrate cycling by glucose and fatty acids. N Engl J Med 317:403–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Swinamer D, Phang P, Jones R, Grace M, King E (1988) Effect of routine administration of analgesia on energy expenditure in critically ill patients. Chest 92:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Macintyre P, Pavlin E, Dwersteg J (1987) Effect of meperidine on oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and respiratory gas exchange in postanaesthesia shivering. Anesth Analg 66:751–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rodriguez J, Weissman C, Damask M, Askanazi J, Hyman A, Kinney J (1983) Morphine and postoperative rewarming in critically ill patients. Circulation 68:1238–1246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Allard JP, Pichard C, Hoshino E, et al (1990) Validation of a new formula for calculating the energy requirements of burn patients. JPEN 14:115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. L. Chioléro
  • D. Bracco
  • J. P. Revelly

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations