Atomic and Electronic Structure of Some Exotic Surfaces Revealed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

  • M. Tsukada
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 114)


A first-principles theoretical method of simulation for scanning tunneling microscopy image and spectroscopy data is presented based on the local density functional approach. The theoretical simulation plays very essential role to decode all the rich and detailed information from experiments, and to clarify effects of the microscopic structure of the tip. The method is applied to some interesting surface systems such as graphite, Si(100) dimer surfaces and step structures, Si(lll)\(\sqrt 3 \times \sqrt 3 \) — Ag surface. The mechanism to achieve the atomic resolution by the tip with the curvature of several hundreds of Angstroms is clarified and it is discussed how the atomic structure of the tip influences the STM image. Case studies show that naive interpretation of the STM image sometimes fails. Exotic phenomena such as transparency of the adsorbed molecule and a moire pattern formation are discussed.


Tunnel Current Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Image Theoretical Simulation Benzene Molecule Moire Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    ”Scanning Tunneling Microscopy I,II,III” eds. H.J.Güntherodt and R.Wiesendanger (Springer, 1992)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.M.Feenstra, J.A.Stroscio and A.P.Fein, Surface Sci., 12 (1987)95Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.Tsukada, K.Kobayashi, N.Isshiki and H.Kageshima, Surface Sci. Reports,33 (1991) 265Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    N.Isshiki, K.Kobayashi and M.Tsukada, Surface Sci., 238 (1990) L439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    N.Isshiki, H.Kageshima, K.Kobayashi and M.Tsukada, Ultramicroscopy 42–44 (1992) 109Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T.Uchiyama and M.Tsukada, Surface Sci., in pressGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.Watanabe, M.Aono and M.Tsukada, Phys. Rev. B44 (1991) 8330Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.Watanabe, M.Aono and M.Tsukada, Ultramicroscopy 42–44 (1992) 105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.Watanabe, M.Aono and M.Tsukada, Appl. Surface Sci., 60/61 (1992) 437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.Tsukada, N.Isshiki and K.Kobayashi, Surface Sci., in press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.Bardeen, Phys. Rev. Lett., 15 (1961) 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.Tsukada and N.Shima, J.Phys.Soc.Jpn., 56 (1987) 2875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M.Tsukada and K.Kobayashi, Surface Sci., 242 (1991) 12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E.J. van Loenen, J.E.Demuth, R.M.Tromp and RJ.Hamers, Phys. Rev. Lett., 58 (1987) 373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.Katayama, RS.Williams, M.Kato, E.Nomura and M.Aono, Phys. Rev. Lett., 66 (1991) 2762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.Watanabe, M.Aono and M.Tsukada, Surface Sci., in pressGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    RJ.Hamers, RM.Tromp, and J.E.Demuth, Phys. Rev. B34(1986)5343Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Z.Zhu,N.Shima and M.Tsukada, Phys. Rev. B40 (1989) 11868Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T.Tabata, T.Aruga and Y.Murata, Surface Sci., 179 (1986) L63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H.Kageshima and M.Tsukada, Phys. Rev. B46 (1992)6928Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.J.Hamers, Ph.Avouris and F.Bozso, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59 (1987) 2071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R.A. Wolkow, Phys. Rev. Lett., 68 (1992) 2636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    F.Iwawaki, M.Tomitori and O.Nishikawa, J.Vac.Sci.Technol., B9(1991)711Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T.Uchiyama and M.Tsukada, Surface Sci., in pressGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.Mizutani, M.Shigeno, M.Ono and K.Kajimura, Appl. Phys. Lett., 56 (1990) 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H.Itoh, T.Ichinose, C.Oshima, T.Ichinokawa and T.Aizawa, Surface Sci., 254 (1991) L437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K.Kobayashi, Y.Souzu, N.Isshiki and M.Tsukada, Appl. Surface Sci. 60/61 (1992) 443,CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Tsukada
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of TokyoBunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113Japan

Personalised recommendations