Measles Virus Infection, Nonhuman Primates
The lesions of naturally occurring and experimental measles in nonhuman primates have been well described in the literature (Potkay et al. 1966; Scott and Keymer 1975; Hall et al. 1971; Sota and Deauville 1964; Manning et al. 1968; Blake and Trask 1921b; Lorenz and Albrecht 1980; Albrecht et al. 1980; Montrey et al. 1980; Levy and Mirkovic 1971; Taniguchi et al. 1954; Sergiev et al. 1960; Kamahora and Nii 1965). Facial edema and erythema accompanied by chemosis are common features on external examination (Fig. 112). In most species there is also an erythematous maculopapular rash on the ventral abdomen and inner thighs that often has a silvery scaly surface as it begins to fade (Fig. 113). Vesicles are rare, but pustules are occasionally present due to secondary bacterial infection. There may be one or more 1mm diameter, raised, white spots (Koplik spots), sometimes rimmed in red and with bluish centers, on the buccal, labial, or glossal mucosa; these usually precede the generalized rash and, if present, are pathognomonic for measles. Rash may be absent in some species or outbreaks, e.g., Colobus guereza (Hime et al. 1975) and Saguinus mystax (Albrecht et al. 1980). Death may precede the development of the rash or may occur after the rash has faded. Rash may be difficult to appreciate in darkly pigmented species, such as gorillas.
KeywordsRhesus Monkey Nonhuman Primate Measle Virus Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Canine Distemper Virus
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