Advertisement

Measles Virus Infection, Nonhuman Primates

  • Linda J. Lowenstine
Part of the Monographs on Pathology of Laboratory Animals book series (LABORATORY)

Abstract

The lesions of naturally occurring and experimental measles in nonhuman primates have been well described in the literature (Potkay et al. 1966; Scott and Keymer 1975; Hall et al. 1971; Sota and Deauville 1964; Manning et al. 1968; Blake and Trask 1921b; Lorenz and Albrecht 1980; Albrecht et al. 1980; Montrey et al. 1980; Levy and Mirkovic 1971; Taniguchi et al. 1954; Sergiev et al. 1960; Kamahora and Nii 1965). Facial edema and erythema accompanied by chemosis are common features on external examination (Fig. 112). In most species there is also an erythematous maculopapular rash on the ventral abdomen and inner thighs that often has a silvery scaly surface as it begins to fade (Fig. 113). Vesicles are rare, but pustules are occasionally present due to secondary bacterial infection. There may be one or more 1mm diameter, raised, white spots (Koplik spots), sometimes rimmed in red and with bluish centers, on the buccal, labial, or glossal mucosa; these usually precede the generalized rash and, if present, are pathognomonic for measles. Rash may be absent in some species or outbreaks, e.g., Colobus guereza (Hime et al. 1975) and Saguinus mystax (Albrecht et al. 1980). Death may precede the development of the rash or may occur after the rash has faded. Rash may be difficult to appreciate in darkly pigmented species, such as gorillas.

Keywords

Rhesus Monkey Nonhuman Primate Measle Virus Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Canine Distemper Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aaby P, Coovadia H, Bukh J, Lisse IM, Smits AJ, Wesley A, Kiepiela P (1985) Severe measles: a reappraisal of the role of nutrition, overcrowding and virus dose. Med Hypotheses 18: 93–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht P, Shabo AL, Burns GR, Tauraso NM (1972) Experimental measles encephalitis in normal and cyclophosphamide-treated rhesus monkeys. J Infect Dis 126: 154–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albrecht P, Lorenz D, Klutch MJ, Vickers JH, Ennis FA (1980) Fatal measles infection in marmosets. Patho¬genesis and prophylaxis. Infect Immun 27: 969–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Axton JHM (1975) Measles: a protein-losing enteropathy. Br Med J 3: 79–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhatt PN, Brandt CD, Weiss RA, Fox JP, Shaffer MF (1966) Viral infections of monkeys in their natural habitat in southern India: II. Serological evidence of viral infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15: 561–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Black FL (1989) Measles. In: Evans AS (ed) Viral infections of humans, 3rd edn. Plenum, London, pp 451–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blake FG, Trask JD Jr (1921a) Studies on measles: I. Susceptibility of monkeys to the virus of measles. J Exp Med 33: 385–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blake FG, Trask JD Jr (1921b) Studies on measles: II. Symptomatology and pathology in monkeys experimentally infected. J Exp Med 33: 413–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blanchard JL, Soike K, Baskin GB (1987) Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in African green and squirrel monkeys: comparison of pathologic effects. Lab Anim Sci 37: 635–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyce JT, Giddens WE, Valerio M (1978) Simian adenoviral pneumonia. Am J Pathol 91: 259–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brack M, Eichberg JW, Heberling RL, Kalter SS (1985) Experimental herpes neonatalis in SA 8-infected baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Lab Anim 19: 125–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carter MJ, ter Meulen V (1990) Measles. In: Zuckerman AJ, Banatvala JE, Pattison JR (eds) Principles and practice of clinical virology, 2nd edn. Wiley, Chichester, pp 313–337Google Scholar
  13. Cosby SL, McQuaid S, Duffy N, Lyons C, Rima BK, Allan GM, McCullough SJ, Kennedy S, Smyth JA, McNeilly F, Draig C, Orgell C (1988) Characterization of a seal morbillivirus. Nature 336: 115–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeLay PD, Stone SS, Karzon DT, Katz S, Enders J (1965) Clinical and immune response of alien hosts to inoculation with measles, rinderpest and canine distemper viruses. Am J Vet Res 26: 1359–1373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. DeMol P, Mukashema S, Bogaerts J, Hemelhof W, Butzler JP (1984) Cryptosporidium related to measles diarrhoea in Rwanda. Lancet 8393: 42–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dick EC, Dick CR (1974) Natural and experimental infections of nonhuman primates with respiratory viruses. Lab Anim Sci 24: 177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. El Behairy F, Hablas R, El Diwany K, Eissa AM, Ezzat M, Hassan F (1986) Clinico-bacteriological study of diarrhoea complicating measles. J Trop Pediatr 32: 44–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Espana C (1973) Herpesvirus simiae infection in Macaca radiata. Am J Phys Anthropol 38: 447–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flecknell PA, Parry R, Needham JR, Ridley RM, Baker HF, Bowes P (1983) Respiratory disease associated with parainfluenza type I (Sendai) virus in a colony of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Lab Anim 17: 111–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fraser CEO, Chalifoux L, Sehgal P, Hunt RD, King NW (1978) A paramyxovirus causing fatal gastroenterocolitis in marmoset monkeys. Primates Med 10: 261–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gribble DH, Haden CC, Schwartz LW, Henrickson RV (1975) Spontaneous progressive multifocal leukoen- cephalopathy (PML) in macaques. Nature 254: 602–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hall WC, Kovatch RM, Herman PH, Fox JG (1971) Pathology of measles in rhesus monkeys. Vet Pathol 8: 307–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hertig AT, King NW, MacKey (1971) Spontaneous abortion in wild-caught rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Lab Anim Sci 21: 510–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hicks JT, Albrecht P (1976) Cytolytic, complement- dependent antibodies to measles virus in rhesus monkeys after administration of liver or killed virus. J Infect Dis 133: 648–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hicks JT, Sullivan JL, Albrecht P (1977) Immune responses during measles infection in immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys. J Immunol 119: 1452–1456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hime JM, Keymer IF, Baxter CJ (1975) Measles in recently imported colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza). Vet Rec 97: 392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnsen DO, Wooding WL, Tanticharoenyos P, Karnjanaprakorn C (1971) An epizootic of A2/Hong Kong/68 influenza in gibbons. J Infect Dis 123: 365–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kalter SS, Heberling RL (1990) Viral battery testing in nonhuman primate colony management. Lab Anim Sci 40: 21–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kalter SS, Ratner J, Kalter GV, Rodriguez AR, Kim CS (1967) A survey of primate sera for antibodies to viruses of human and simian origin. Am J Epidemiol 86: 552–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kamahora J, Nii S (1965) Pathological and immunological studies of monkeys infected with measles virus. Archiv Gesamte Virusforsch 16: 161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Katz S (1985) Measles — forgotten but not gone. N Engl J Med 313: 577–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kempe CH, Fulginiti (1965) The pathogenesis of measles virus infection. Archiv Gesamte Virusforsch 16: 103–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kim CS, Kriewaldt FH, Hagino N, Kalter SS (1970) Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-like syndrome in the adult baboon (Papio sp). J Am Vet Med Assoc 157: 730–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Levy BM, Mirkovic RR (1971) An epizootic of measles in a marmoset colony. Lab Anim Sci 21: 33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Lorenz D, Albrecht P (1980) Susceptibility of tamarins (Saguinus) to measles virus. Lab Anim Sci 30: 661–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. MacArthur JA, Mann PG, Oreffo V, Scott GBD (1979) Measles in monkeys: an epidemiological study. J Hyg 83: 207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. MacArthur JA, Mann PG, Oreffo V, Scott GBD (1982) The effect of measles vaccination in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Lab Anim 16: 267–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Manning PJ, Banks KL, Lehner NDM (1968) Naturally occurring giant cell pneumonia in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). J Am Vet Med Assoc 153: 899–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. McChesney MB, Oldstone MBA (1989) Virus-induced immunosuppression: infections with measles virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Adv Immunol 45: 335–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McChesney MB, Fujinami RS, Lerche NW, Marx PA, Oldstone MBA (1989) Virus-induced immunosuppression: infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and suppression of immunoglobulin synthesis during natural measles virus infection of rhesus monkeys. J Infect Dis 159: 757–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mei A, Meng Y, Gouxiang L, Shufan C, Jingyn Z, Ping S (1990) Virological survey of rhesus monkeys in China. Lab Anim Sci 40: 29–32Google Scholar
  42. Meyer HM, Brooks BE, Douglas RD, Rogers NG (1962) Ecology of measles in monkeys. Am J Dis Child 103: 307–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Montrey RD, Huxsoll DL, Hildebrandt PK, Booth BW, Arimbalam S (1980) An epizootic of measles in captive silvered leaf-monkeys (Presbytis cristatus) in Malaysia. Lab Anim Sci 30: 694–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Morris JA, Blount RE Jr, Savage RE (1956) Recovery of cytopathogenic agent from chimpanzees with coryza. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 92: 544–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Nagata T, Ochikubo F, Yoshikawa Y, Yamanouchi K (1990) Encephalitis induced by a canine distemper virus in squirrel monkeys. J Med Primatol 19: 137–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Phillips IR, Colman G, Clarke M (1975) Measles in measles in monkeys. Vet Rec 97: 436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pongrithsukda V, Phonboon K, Manunpichu K (1986) Measles-associated diarrhoea in northeastern Thailand. S E Asian J Trop Med Public Health 17: 43–47Google Scholar
  48. Potkay S, Ganaway JR, Rogers NG, Kinard R (1966) An epizootic of measles in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Am J Vet Res 27: 331–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Remfry J (1976) A measles epizootic with 5 deaths in newly imported rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Lab Anim 10: 49–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Renne RRA, McLaughlin R, Jenson AB (1973) Measles virus-associated endometritis, cervicitis and abortion in a rhesus monkey. J Am Vet Med Assoc 163: 639–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Roberts ED, Baskin GB, Soike K, Meiners N (1984) Pathologic changes of experimental simian varicella (delta herpesvirus) infection in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Am J Vet Res 45: 523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Scott GBD, Keymer IF (1975) The pathology of measles in Abyssinian colobus monkeys (Colobus guerza): a description of an outbreak. J Pathol 117: 229–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sergiev PG, Ryazantseva NE, Shroit IG (1960) The dynamics of pathological processes in experimental measles in monkeys. Acta Virol 4: 265–273Google Scholar
  54. Shah KV, Southwick CH (1965) Prevalence of antibodies to certain viruses in sera of free-living rhesus and of captive monkeys. Ind J Med Res 53: 488–500Google Scholar
  55. Shishido A (1966) Natural infection of measles virus in laboratory monkeys. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 19: 221–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Sota PJ, Deauville GA (1964) Spontaneous simian giant-cell pneumonia with coexistent B virus infection. Am J Vet Res 25: 793–804Google Scholar
  57. Steel MD, Giddens WE Jr, Valerio M, Sumi SM, Stetzer ER (1982) Spontaneous paramyxoviral encephalitis in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta and M. nemestrina). Vet Pathol 19: 132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Suzuki M, Sasagawa A, Inayoshi T, Nakamura F, Honjo S (1981) Serological survey for SV5, measles and herpes simplex infections in newly imported cynomolgus monkeys. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 34: 69–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Taniguchi T, Kamahora J, Kato S, Hagiwara K (1954) Pathology in monkeys experimentally infected with measles virus. Med J Osaka Univ 5: 367–396Google Scholar
  60. Weigler BJ (1992) Biology of B virus in macaque and human hosts: a review. Clin Infect Dis 14: 555–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yamanouchi K, Fukuda A, Kobune F, Hikita M, Shishido A (1969) Serologic survey with the sera of monkeys in regard to their natural infection with measles virus. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 22: 117–121PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda J. Lowenstine

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations