Hormonal Regulation of Lipoprotein Metabolism in Obesity

  • W. O. Richter
  • A. C. Soennichsen
  • M. M. Ritter
  • P. Schwandt
Conference paper
Part of the Recent Developments in Lipid and Lipoprotein Research book series (LIPID)


Severe obesity leads to an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Although the relative increase of risk is low (from 1.0 in normal weight subjects to 1.55 in persons with an overweight >40%) in comparison to other diseases (e. g. increase in mortality rate for diabetes mellitus from 1.0 to 7.55 in obese women) it has great importance for public health [1]. The factors leading to the increased risk include a higher frequency of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors. A positive eilergy balance and especially a high fat intake during weight gain negatively influences serum lipoproteins. But also under a weight maintaining diet distinctlipoprotein alterations are present in obesity. Characteristic are an increase of serum triglycerides, VLDL-triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol, and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Table 1 illustrates these findings in 158 men also indicating that there is no correlation between BMI and total or LDL-cholesterol. In moderate obesity there may be a slight increase of total cholesterol but in severe obesity (BMI >36 kg/m2) often low cholesterol concentrations can be observed (Fig. 1).


Insulin Sensitivity Pancreatic Polypeptide Lipoprotein Metabolism Serum Lipoprotein Oral Glucose Load 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Garfinkel L (1986) Overweight and cancer. Ann Intern Med 1985; 103: 1034–6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bolinder J, Lithell H, Skarfors, E, Arner, P. (1986) Effects of obesity, hyperinsulinema, and glucose intolerance on insulin action in adipose tissue of sixty-year-old men. Diabetes 35: 282–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vague J (1947) La differentiation sexuelle, facteur determinant des formes de l’ obesity. Presse Med 55: 339–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vague J (1956) The degree of masculine differentiation oboeities: afaouor determining preposition to diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout and uric calculous disease. A. J Clin Nuts 4: 20Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haffner SM, Fong D, Hazuda HP, Pugh JA, Patterson JK (1988) Hyperinsulibemia, upper body adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors in non-diabetics. Metabolism 37: 338–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kissebah AH, Vydelingum N, Murray R (1982) Relation of body fat distribution to metabolic complications of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54: 254–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Idartz AHC Rimo AA (1984) The association of girth measurements with disease in 32856 women. Am J Epidemiol 119: 71–80.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Evans DJ. Hoffmann RG. Kalkhoff RK, Kissebah AH (1984) Relationship of body fat topography to insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles in premenopausal women. Metabolism 33: 68–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ostlund RE, Staten M. Kohrt WM.Schultz J. Malleyy, M (of waist-to-hip circumference, plasma insulin level, and glucose intolerance as independent predictors of the HDL2 cholesterol level in older adults. New Engl J Med 322: 229–234Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Donubue RP, Abbott RD. Bloom E.Reed DM, Yano K (1987) Central obesity ‘and coronary heart disease in men. Lancet 1: 821–823.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Polonsky sadle patterns of insulin secretion bonormal aod obese subjects. J Clin Invest 81: 442–448.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marao AG Weber KM ’Boston RC.Aitken Heggie JCP.Kirsner RLG,Best JD, Alford FP (1986) Metabolic consequences ofprolonged hyperiomulinemia in humans. Diabetes 35: l383 –1389.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kahn CR.White MF (1988) The insulin receptor and the molecular mechanism of insulin action. J Clin Invest 82: 1151–1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mozgan, DO. Roth.RA (I9N7)Acute insulin action requires insulin receptor kinase activity: introduction of an inhibitory monoclonal antibody into mammalian cells blocks the rapid effects ofinsulin. Pnoc Nat Acad Sci USA 84: 4l–45.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takayama S, Kahn CR, Kubo K, Foley JE (1988) Alterations in insulin receptor autophosphorylation in insulin resistance: correlation with altered sensitivity to glucose transport and antilipolysis to insulin. J Clin Endocr Metab 66: 992–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Garvey WT. Huecksteadt. TP. Matthaei S. Olefsky JM (1988) Role of glucose transporters in the cellular insulin resistance of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 81: 1528–1536Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grundy SM, Denke MA (1990)(Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteine. J Lipid Res 31:1149–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jimenez JG, Fong BS, Julien P, Despres JP, Angel A (1988) Weight loss in massive obesity: reciprocal changes in plasma HDL cholesterol and HDL binding to human adipocyte plasma membranes. Metabolism 37: 580–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 20.
    Richter WO, Schwand P (1985) Peptide hormonesand lipolysis in rabbit adipocytes. Horm Metabol Res 17: 127–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 21.
    Solerte SB.Fioravanti M.Petraglia F.Fecchineti F, Patti AL, Schifino N, Genazzani AR.Ferrari E (1988) Plasma beta endorphin, free fatty acids and blood lipid changes in type 2(non-insulin dependent) diabetic patients. J Endocrinol Invest 11: 37–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 22.
    Facchinetti F, Giovannini C, Barletta C, Petraglia F, Buzzetti.Burla F.Lazzari R.Genazzani AR. Svaco D (1986) Hyperendorphinemia in obesity and relatioships to affective state. Physiol Behav 36: 937–940.Google Scholar
  22. 23.
    Givens JR.Wiedemann E, Andersen RN, Kitubohi AE (1980) ß-endorphin and ß-lipotropin [lasma levels in hirsute women: correlation with body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 975–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 24.
    DeFronzo RA Sherwin RS Kraemer N (1987) Effect ofphysical training on insulin action in obesity. Diabetes 36: 379–l385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. O. Richter
  • A. C. Soennichsen
  • M. M. Ritter
  • P. Schwandt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations