Three “Universal” Mesoscopic Josephson Effects

  • C. W. J. Beenakker
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 109)


A recent theory is reviewed for the sample-to-sample fluctuations in the critical current of a Josephson junction consisting of a disordered point contact or microbridge. The theory is based on a relation between the super-current and the scattering matrix in the normal state. The root-mean-square amplitude rms I c of the critical current I c at zero temperature is given by rms I c eΔ0/ℏ, up to a numerical coefficient of order unity (eΔ0 is the energy gap). This is the superconducting analogue of “Universal Conductance Fluctuations” in the normal state. The theory can also be applied to a ballistic point contact, where it yields the analogue of the quantized conductance, and to a quantum dot, where it describes supercurrent resonances. All three phenomena provide a measurement of the supercurrent unit eΔ0/ℏ, and are “universal” through the absence of a dependence on junction parameters.


Critical Current Coherence Length Josephson Junction Tunnel Junction Andreev Reflection 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. W. J. Beenakker
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituut-LorentzUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

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