Excited States of Retinoids, Carotenoids, and Chlorophylls
The Raman spectra of all-trans-retinal and β-carotene in the T1 state were first reported in 1981  and 1979 , respectively. The S1 Raman spectrum of β-carotene, on the other hand, was first reported as late as in 1989 [3–5]. The first T1 Raman spectra of chlorophyll a (Chl) and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl) were reported in 1989  and 1990 , and the S1 Raman spectrum of BChl has been recorded very recently .
KeywordsHPLC Chlorophyll Benzene Aldehyde Carotenoid
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