Chronic Leukaemia

  • G. Schaison
  • A. Baruchel
  • T. Leblanc
Part of the UICC International Union Against Cancer book series (1360)


Chronic granulocytic leukaemia is the most common myeloproliferative disease in childhood, accounting for approximately 2%–5% of cases of childhood leukaemia [1]. It is questionable whether chronic lymphocytic leukaemia occurs. Two main types of well-differentiated myelocytic leukaemia have been recognized [1–6]. One is clinically and haematologically comparable with the adult form of chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML) and appears in children above the age of 4 years. The other presents earlier in infancy, with granulocytic and monocytic proliferation, and clinically pursues a much more rapid course with an increased incidence of heamorrhage and infection. Differences between these two types are listed in Table 1.


Bone Marrow Transplantation Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cooke JV (1983) Chronic myelogenous leukemia in children. J Pediatr 42: 537Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Castro-Malaspina H, Schaison G, Briere J, Passe S, Pasquier A, Tanzer J, Jacquillat C, Bernard J (1983) Philadelphia chromosome positive, chronic myelocytic leukemia in children. Survival and prognostic factors. Cancer 52/4: 721–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Castro-Malaspina H, Schaison G, Passe S, Pasquier A, Berger R, Bayle-Weisgerber C, Miller D, Seligmann M, Bernard J (1984) Subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia in children (juvenile CML): clinical and hematologic observations and identification of prognostic factors. Cancer 54: 675–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hardisty RM, Speed DE, Till M (1964) Granulocytic leukemia in childhood. Br J Haematol 10: 551–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nix WL, Fernbach DJ (1981) Myeloproliferative diseases in childhood. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 3: 397–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith KL, Johnson W (1974) Classification of chronic myelocytic leukemia in children. Cancer 34: 670–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Altman AJ, Plamer CG, Baehner RL (1974) Juvenile “chronic granulocytic” leukemia, a panmyelopathy with prominent monocytic involvement and circulating monocyte colony forming cells. Blood 43: 341–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bloom GE, Gerald PS, Diamond LK (1966) Chronic myelogenous leukemia in an infant: serial cytogenetic and fetal hemoglobulin studies. Pediatrics 38: 295–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moloney WC (1975) Natural history of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Clin Haematol 6: 41–53Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chessels JM, Janossy C, Lawler SD, Walker HS (1979) The Ph’ chromosome in childhood leukemia. Br J Haematol 41: 25–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fialkow PJ, Jacobson RJ, Papayannopoulou T (1977) Chronic granulocytic leukemia: clonal origin in a stem cell common to the granulocyte, erythrocyte, platelet and monocyte macrophage. Am J Med 63: 125–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spiers ASD (1979) Metamorphosis of chronic granulocytic leukemia: diagnosis, classification and management. Br J Haematol 41: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schwartz JH, Canellos GP (1975) Hydroxyurea in the management of the hematologic complications of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Blood 46: 11–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sandberg AA, Ishihara T, Crosswhite LH, Haoschka TS (1982) Comparison of chromosome constitution in chronic myelocytic leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders. Blood 20: 393–423Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bornstein RS, Nesbit M, Kennedy BJ (1972) Chronic myelogenous leukemia presenting in blastic crisis. Cancer 30: 939–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Catovsky D (1979) Ph’ positive acute and chronic granulocytic leukemia: one or two diseases? Br J Haematol 42: 493–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pui CH, Christ W, Lock AT (1990) Biology and clinical significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 76: 1449–1463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peterson LC, Bloomfield CD, Brunning RD (1976) Blast crisis as an initial or terminal manifestation of chronic myeloid leukemia. Am J Med 60: 209–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Janossy G, Woodruff RK, Pippard MJ, Prentice G, Hoffbrand AV, Paxton A, Lister TA, Bunch C, Greaves MF (1979) Relation of “lymphoid” phenotype and response to chemotherapy incorporating vincristine-prednisolone in the acute phase of Ph’ positive leukemia. Cancer 43: 426–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marks SM, Baltimore D, McCaffrey R (1978) Terminal transferase as a predictor of initial responsiveness to vincristine and prednisone in blastic chronic myelogenous leukemia. N Engl J Med 298: 812–814 33.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Talpaz M, Kantarjian H, Kurzrock R, Gutterman JU (1990) Update on therapeutic options for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Semin Hematol 27/3: 31–36 34.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fefer A, Cheever MA, Greenberg PD (1982) Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia with chemo-radiotherapy and transplantation from identical twins. N Engi J Med 396: 163–168Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Champlin R, Arenson E, Gale RP (1981) Allogenic bone marrow transplantation for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. Blood [Suppl] 1: 58 (abstract 595)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Devergie A, Reiffers J, Vernant JP et al. (1990) Long term follow up after bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: factors associated with relapse. Bone Marrow Transplant 5: 379–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Suda T, Miura Y, Miloguchi H et al. (1982) Characterization of hematopoietic precursor cells in juvenile-type chronic myelocytic leukemia. Leuk Res 6: 43–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Freedman MH, Estrov Z, Shahidi N, Bunin N, Lau A (1990) Models of leukemopoiesis. Central role of tumor necrosis factor and GM-CSF in the pathogenesis of juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood 76 (suppl 1 ): 271aGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bader JL, Miller RW (1978) Neurofibromatosis and childhood leukemia. J Pediatr 92: 925–929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mays JA, Neerhout RC, Bagby GC, Koler RD (1980) Juvenile chronic granulocytic leukemia. Emphasis on cutaneous manifestations and underlying neurofibromatosis. Am J Dis Child 134: 654–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maurer HS, Vidal H, Honig GR (1972) Similarities of the erythrocytes in juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia to fetal erythrocytes. Blood 39: 778–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB, Wood WG (1975) Fetal erythropoiesis in human leukemia. Nature 257: 710–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cannat A, Seligmann M (1973) Immunological abnormalities in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemie. Br Med J 1: 71–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brodeur GM, Dow LW, Williams DL (1979) Cytogenetic features of juvenile myelogenous leukemie. Blood 53: 812–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lilleyman JS, Harrisson JF, Black JA (1977) Treatment of juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia with sequential subcutaneous cytarabine and oral mercaptopurine. Blood 49: 559–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Herrod HG, Dow LW, Sullivan JL (1983) Persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection mimicking juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia: immunologic and hematologic studies. Blood 1098–1104Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sanders JE, Buckner CD, Thomas ED et al. (1986). Allogenic bone marrow transplantation for children with juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood 71: 1144–1146Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Schaison
  • A. Baruchel
  • T. Leblanc

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations