MDCK Cells Under Severely Hypoosmotic Conditions

  • James S. Clegg
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 64)

Abstract

The literature on animal cells exposed to anisosmotic solutions is truly massive as one may appreciate from a few selected recent reviews on the subject (Gilles et al. 1987; Macknight, 1988; Chamberlin and Strange, 1989; Kleinzeller and Ziyadeh, 1990; Beyenbach, 1990). No attempt will be made here to review this research, but a few introductory comments on hypoosmotic exposure are in order. The extent to which osmolarity of the surrounding medium has been reduced varies widely, according to the intentions of the investigators, but commonly amounts to reductions of 50 percent or less. A huge effort has gone into the means by which such cells restore their volumes (if they do so). Occasional reference has also been made to the remarkable ability of certain animal cells to survive exposure to, “essentially”, distilled water (see, for example, Kleinzeller and Ziyadeh, 1990; Macknight, 1987). However, to my knowledge these reports are anecdotal, and no detailed account of this extreme situation seems to have been published. Study of the behavior of cells in such dilute solutions might provide insight into the potential involvement of cell ultrastructure in cell swelling. In addition, some interesting questions arise about their metabolic status. For these reasons we carried out a series of experiments using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). This cell type was selected because it is a stable, well-established epithelial line, and widely used in studies involving volume changes (see Roy and Sauvé 1987; Helig et al. 1990; Mills, 1987). Moreover, the cytomatrix of MDCK cells has been described in reasonable detail (see Fey and Penman, 1986; Mitchell, 1990). As we shall see, their response to extremely dilute solutions is impressive.

Keywords

Lactate DMSO Shrinkage Cytosol NADH 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albrecht-Buehler G (1990) In defense of “nonmolecular” cell biology. Int Rev Cytol 120:191–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bereiter-Hahn J, Strohmeier R (1987) Hydrostatic pressure in metazoan cells in culture: its involvement in locomotion and shape generation. In: Bereiter-Hahn J, Anderson OR, Reif W-E (eds) Cytomechanics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beyenbach KW (ed) (1990) Cell volume regulation. S. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  4. Clegg JS (1988) The aqueous intracellular compartments. In: Jones DP (ed) Microcompartmentation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  5. Clegg JS, Jackson SA (1988) Glycolysis in permeabilized L929 cells. Biochem J 255:335–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carmo-Fonseca M, David-Ferreira JF (1990) Interactions of intermediate filaments with cell structures. Electron Microsc Rev 3:115–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chamberlin ME, Strange K (1989) Anisomotic cell volume regulation: a comparative view. Am J Physiol 257:C159–C173Google Scholar
  8. Cooper JA (1987) A review of the effects of cytochalasin and phalloidin. J Cell Biol 105:1473–1478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cornet M, Delpire E, Gilles R (1988) Relations between cell volume control, microfilaments and microtubule networks in T2 and PC12 cultured cells. J Physiol Paris 83:43–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fey EG, Penman S (1986) New views of cell and tissue cytoarchitecture: embedment-free electron microscopy and biochemical analysis. In: Welch GR, Clegg JS (eds) Organization of cell metabolism. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Gilles R, Kleinzeller A, Bolis L (eds) (1987) Cell volume control: fundamental and applied aspects. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Helig CW, Brenner RM, Yu ASL, Kone BC, Gullans SR (1990) Modulation of osmolytes in MDCK cells by solutes, inhibitors, and vasopressin. Am J Physiol 259:F653–F659Google Scholar
  13. Jamney PA (1991) Mechanical properties of cytoskeletal polymers. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2:4–11Google Scholar
  14. Jones DP (ed) (1988) Microcompartmentation. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  15. Kajstura J, Reiss K (1989) F-actin organization influences the osmotic reactions of animal cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol 27:201–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kellermayer M, Ludany A, Jobst K, Szucs G, Trombitas K, Hazlewood CF (1986) Cocompartmentation of proteins and K+ within the living cell. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 83:1011–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kleinzeller A, Ziyadeh FN (1990) Cell volume in epithelia—with emphasis on the role of osmolytes and the cytoskeleton. In: Beyenbach KW (ed) Cell volume regulation. S. Karger, Basel, pp 59–86Google Scholar
  18. Klymbowsky M, Bachant JB, Domingo A (1989) Functions of intermediate filaments. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 14:309–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lechene C (1985) Cellular volume and cytoplasmic gel. Biol Cell 55:177–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Litniewski J, Bereiter-Hahn J (1990) Measurements of cells in culture by scanning acoustic microscopy. J Microsc 158–95–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luby-Phelps K, Lanni F, Taylor DL (1988) The submicroscopic properties of cytoplasm as a determinant of cellular function. Annu Rev Biophys Biophys Chem 17:369–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Macknight ADC (1987) Volume maintenance in isosmotic conditions. Cur Top Memb Transp 30:3–43Google Scholar
  23. Macknight ADC (1988) Principles of cell volume regulation. Renal Physiol 3:114–141Google Scholar
  24. Matsudaira P (1991) Modular organization of actin crosslinking proteins. Trends Biochem Sci 16:87–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mills JW (1987) The cell cytoskeleton: possible role in volume control. Curr Top Membr Transp 30:75–101Google Scholar
  26. Mitchell JJ, Low RB, Woodcock-Mitchell JL (1990) Cytomatrix synthesis in MDCK epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol 143:501–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Negendank W, Edelmann L (eds) (1988) The state of water in the cell. Scanning Microscopy International, Chicago Pollard TD (1990) Actin. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1:33–40Google Scholar
  28. Porter KR (1984) The cytomatrix: a short history of its study. J Cell Biol 99:3s–12sPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Porter KR (1986) Structural organization of the cytomatrix. In: Welch GR, Clegg JS (eds) Organization of cell metabolism. Plenum, New York, pp 9–26Google Scholar
  30. Ridsdale JA, Clegg JS (1991, to be published) Evidence for cooperativity of protein dissolution in Brij-58 permeabilized L929 cells. J Cell PhysiolGoogle Scholar
  31. Ross-Murphy SB (1991) Physical gelation of synthetic and biological macromolecules. In: DeRossi (ed) Polymer gels. Plenum, New York, pp 21–40Google Scholar
  32. Roy G, Sauvé R (1987) Effect of anisotonic media on volume, ion and amino acid content and membrane potential of kidney cells in culture. J Membr Biol 100:83–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schliwa M, van Blerkom J, Porter KR (1981) Stabilization of the cytoplasmic ground substance in detergent-opened cells and a structural and biochemical analysis of its composition. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 78:4329–4333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Srere P (1987) Complexes of sequential metabolic reactions. Annu Rev Biochem 56:21–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Srere PA, Jones ME, Matthews CK (eds) (1990) Structural and organizational aspects of metabolic regulation. Wiley-Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Stossel TP (1989) From signal to pseudopod: how cells control cytoplasmic actin assembly. J Biol Chem 264–18261–18264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Tonaka T (1981) Gels. Sci Am 244:124–138Google Scholar
  38. Welch GR (ed) (1991, to be published) Metabolic organization and cellular structure. Curr Top Cell Regul 33Google Scholar
  39. Welch GR, Clegg JS (eds) (1986) Organization of cell metabolism. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Wiggins PM, van Ryn RT (1990) Changes in ionic selectivity with changes in density of water in gels and cells. Biophys J 58:585–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wiggins PM, van Ryn RT, Ormrod DGC (1991, to be published) The Dounan membrane equilibrium is not directly applicable to distributions of ions and water in gels or cells. Biophys JGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • James S. Clegg
    • 1
  1. 1.Bodega Marine LaboratoryUniversity of California (Davis)Bodega BayUSA

Personalised recommendations