Ion Channels in the Plasma Membrane of Plant Cells

  • B. R. Terry
  • S. D. Tyerman
  • G. P. Findlay
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 64)

Abstract

Many types of ion channels have been characterised in the membranes of plant cells (Tester, 1990) but overall there is a lack of understanding of their physiological functions. The functions of plant ion channels need to be seen in context of the variable ionic environment to which plant cells are exposed. The mechanisms for acquisition of nutrients must cope with variable driving forces for uptake from low external concentrations yet simultaneously or subsequently be able to respond to excess concentrations. A proton pump energises the plasma membrane and due to a low membrane conductance and rather negative reversal potential of the pump, a large proportion of the electrochemical difference for protons (ΔµH+) is generated as an electrical potential difference (PD). Changes in the driving force due to variations in the external pH can be quickly compensated for by changes in PD. Ion channels are ideally suited to the control of the PD because large dissipative fluxes can occur through relatively few channels when they open.

Keywords

Permeability Corn Cage HEPES Photolysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beilby MJ (1985) Potassium channels at Chara plasmalemma. J Exp Bot 36:228–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bisson MA (1984) Calcium effects on electrogenic pump and passive permeability of the plasma membrane ofChara coralliria. J Membrane Biol 81:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bittisnich D, Robinson D, Whitecross M (1989) Intracellular free calcium levels in the root cells of plants showing differential tolerance to salinity. In: Dainty J, De Michaelis MI, Marre E, Rasi Caldagno F (eds) Plant membrane transport: the current position. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 681–682Google Scholar
  4. Blatt MR, Thiel G, Trentham DR (1990) Reversible inactivation of K+ channels ov Vicia stomatal guard cells following the photolysis of caged inositol 1,–4,5– trisphosphate. Nature 346:766–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown AM, Birnbaumer L (1990) Ionic channels and their regulation by G protein subunits. Ann Rev Physiol 52:197–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bush DS, Hedrich R, Schroeder JI, Jones RL (1988) Channel–mediated K+ flux in barley aleurone protoplasts. Planta 176:368–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cakirlar H, Bowling DJF (1981) The effect of salinity on the membrane potential of sunflower roots. J Exp Bot 32:479–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheeseman JM, Bloebaum PD, Wickens LK (1985) Short term 22Na+ and 42K+ uptake in intact, mid–vegetative Spergularia marina plants. Physiol Plant 65:460–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coleman HA (1986) Chloride currents in Chara – A patch–clamp study. J Membrane Biol 93:55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coleman HA, Findlay GP (1985) Ion channels in the membrane of Chara inflata. J Membrane Biol 83:109– 118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coster HGL (1965) A quantitative analysis of the voltage–current relationships of fixed charge membrane and the associated property of “punch–through”. Biophys J 5:669–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coster HGL (1969) The role of pH in the punch–through effect in the electrical characteristics of Chara corallina. Aust J Biol Sci 22:365–374Google Scholar
  13. Falke L, Edwards KL, Pickard BG, Misler S (1987) A stretch activated anion channel in cultured tobacco cells. Biophysical Journal 51:251aGoogle Scholar
  14. Findlay GP, Coleman HA (1983) Potassium channels in the membrane of Hydrodictyon africanum. J Membrane Biol 68:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox JA (1987) Ion channel subconductance states. J Membrane Biol 97:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hille B (1984) Ionic channels of excitable membranes. Sinauer, Sunderland MAGoogle Scholar
  17. Hope AB, Findlay GP (1964) The action potential in Chara. Plant Cell Physiol (Tokyo) 5:377–379Google Scholar
  18. Hunter M, Giebisch G (1987) Multi–barrelled K+ channels in renal tubules. Nature 327:522–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. lijima T, Hagiwara S (1987) Voltage–dependent K channels in protoplasts of traplobe cells of Dionaea muscipula. J Membrane Biol 100:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kataev AA, Zherelova OM, Berestovsky GN (1984) Ca2+ induced activation and irreversible inactivation of chloride channels in the perfused plasmalemma of Nitellopsis obtusa. Gen Physiol Biophys 3:447–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Katsuhara M, Tazawa M (1986) Salt tolerance in Nitellopsis obtusa. Protoplasma 135:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Keller BU, Hedrich R, Raschke K (1989) Voltage–dependent anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Nature 341:450–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ketchum KA, Shrier A, Poole RJ (1989) Characterisation of potassium–dependent currents in protoplasts of corn suspension cells. Plant Physiol 89:1184–1192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ketchum KA, Poole RJ (1991) Cytosolic calcium regulates a potassium current in corn (Zea mays) protoplasts. J Membrane Biol 119:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kourie JI, Findlay GP (1990) Ionic currents across the piasmalemma of Chara inflata cells II Effects of external Na+, Ca2+ and CI on K+ and CI currents. J Exp Bot 41:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Levitan, IB (1985) Phosphorylation of ion channels. J Membrane Biol 87:177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lunevsky VZ, Zherelova OM, Beretovsky GN (1983) Excitation ofCharaceae cell membranes as a result of activation of calcium and chloride channels. J Membrane Biol 72:43–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lynch J, Polito VS, Lauchli A (1990) Salinity stress increases cytoplasmic Ca activity in maize root protoplasts. Plant Physiol 90:1271–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller C (1982) Open–state substructure of single chloride channels from Torpedo electroplax. Phil Trans R Soc Lond (Ser B) 299:401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moran N, Satter RL (1989) K+ channels in piasmalemma of motor cells of Samanea saman In: Dainty J, De Michaelis MI, Marre E, Rasi Caldagno F (eds) Plant membrane transport: The current position. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 529–530Google Scholar
  31. Moran N, Fox D, Satter RL (1990) Interaction of the depolarization–activated K+ channel of Samanea saman with inorganic ions: a patch–clamp study. Plant Physiol 94:424–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rudy B (1988) Diversity and ubiquity of K channels. Neuroscience 25:729–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schachtman DP, Tyerman SD, Terry BR (to be published) K+/Na+ selectivity of a cation channel in the plasma membrane of root cells does not account for salinity tolerance in wheat. Plant PhysiolGoogle Scholar
  34. Schauf CL, Wilson KJ (1987) Properties of single K+ and CI- channels in Asclepias tuberosa protoplasts. Plant Physiol 85:413–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schroeder JI (1988) K+ properties of K+ channels in the plasma membrane of Vicia faba guard cells. J Gen Physiol 92:667–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schroeder JI, Hagawari S (1989) Cytosolic calcium regulates ion channels in the plasma membrane of Vicia faba guard cells. Nature 338:427–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schroeder Jl, Raschke K, Neher E (1987) Voltage dependence of K+ channels in guard cell protoplasts. Proc Nat Acad Sci 84:4108–4112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stoekel H, Takeda K (1989) Calcium-activated voltage-dependent non-selective cation currents in endosperm plasma memnbrane from higher plants. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 237:213–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Terry BR, Tyerman SD, Findlay GP (1991) Ion channels in the piasmalemma of Amaranthus protoplasts: one cation and one anion channel dominate the conductance. J Membrane Biol 121:223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tester M (1990) Plant ion channels: whole–cell and single–channel studies. New Phytol 114:305–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tyerman SD, Findlay GP (1989) Current–voltage curves of single CI- channels which coexist with two types of K+ channel in the tonoplast of Chara corallina. J Exp Bot 40:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tyerman SD, Findlay GP, Paterson GJ (1986a) Inward membrane current in Chara inflata I A voltage–and time–dependent CI-component. J Membrane Biol 89:139–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tyerman SD, Findlay GP, Paterson GJ (1986b) Inward membrane current in Chara inflata: II Effects of pH, Cl–channel blockers and NH4 +, and significance for the hyperpolarized state. J Membrane Biol 89:153–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zherelova OM (1989) Activation of chloride channels in the plasmalemma of Nitella syncarpa by inositol 1,4,5–triphosphate. FEBS Lett 249:105–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. R. Terry
    • 1
  • S. D. Tyerman
    • 1
  • G. P. Findlay
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesThe Flinders University of South AustraliaAdelaideSouth Australia

Personalised recommendations