Affective, Schizoaffective and Schizophrenic Disorders: A Comparative Long-Term Study
A total of 402 patients were followed up for, on average, 25 years after the onset of their illness.
schizophrenic disorder (n=148)
schizoaffective disorder (n=101)
affective disorder (n=106).
The remaining 47 patients did not fulfil the criteria for any of these diagnoses.
A distinction was made between „episode“ (cross-sectional diagnosis) and „illness“ or „disorder“ (longitudinal diagnosis).
The „episodes” (cross-sectional diagnosis) were classified according to slightly modified DSM-IIÏ criteria into schizophrenic, affective (melancholic, manic, manic-depressive mixed), schizoaffective (schizodepressive, schizomanic, schizo- manic-depressive mixed) and non-characteristic episodes.
Schizophrenic episode: criteria of DSM-IÏI, slightly modified.
Melancholic episode: according to „Major Depression, Melancholic Type“ of DSM-III-R.
Manic epissode: according to the criteria of DSM-III, slightly modified.
Manic-depressive mixed episode: Presence of manic and depressive symptomatology during one episode.
Schizodepressive episode: Presence of schizophrenic and depressive symptomatology during one episode.
Schizomanic episode: presence of schizophrenic and manic symptomatology during one episode.
Schizomanic-depressive mixed episode: Presence of schizophrenic, manic and depressive symptomatology during one episode.
The diagnosis of an „illness“ or „disorder“ (longitudinal diagnosis) took account of all the kinds of episodes that occurred during the whole course.
The final diagnosis (longitudinal diagnoses) were defined as follows:
Schizophrenic disorder: only schizophrenic episodes during the whole course Affective disorder: only affective episodes during the whole course (melancholic, manic, manic-depressive mixed episodes)
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