Advertisement

Literatur

  • Franz Müller-Spahn
Chapter
Part of the Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Psychiatrie book series (PSYCHIATRIE, volume 64)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Ackenheil M, Hippius H, Matussek N (1978) Ergebnisse der biochemischen Forschung auf dem Schizophreniegebiet. Nervenarzt 49: 634–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackenheil M, Albus M, Müller F, Müller T, Welter D, Zander K, Engel R (1979) Catecholamine response to short-time stress in schizophrenic and depressive patients. In: Usdin E, Kopin II, Barchas J (eds) Catecholamines: Basic and clinical frontiers, Pergamon Press, New York, 1937–1939Google Scholar
  3. Ackenheil M (1981) Biochemical effects of apomorphine: contribution to schizophrenia research. In: Corsini GU, Gessa GL (eds) Apomorphine and other dopaminomimetics, vol II. Raven Press, New York, 215–224Google Scholar
  4. Ackenheil M, Fröhler M, Goldig G, Rall C, Welter D (1982) Katecholaminbestimmung im Blut und Liquor mit Hochdruckflüssigkeitschromatographie und elektrochemischem Detektor. Arzneimittelforschung, 32 (II) 8: 893Google Scholar
  5. Ackenheil M, Albus M, Bondy B, Müller-Spahn F, Miinch U, Naber D (1983) Neuroendocrine and receptor binding studies in schizophrenia. In: Pichot P, Berner P, Wolf R, Thau K (eds) Psychiatry: The state of the art, vol II. Plenum Press, New York, 215–220Google Scholar
  6. Anden NE, Corrodi H, Fuxe K, Hokfelt B, Hokfelt T, Rvdin C, Svensson T (1970) Evidence for a central noradrenaline receptor stimulation by clonidine. Life Sci 9: 513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ansseau M, Scheyvaerts M, Doumont A, Poirrier R, Legros JJ, Franck G (1984) Concurrent use of REM latency, dexamethasone suppression clonidine and apomorphine tests as biological markers of endogenous depression: A pilot study. Psychiatry Res 12: 261–272Google Scholar
  8. Ansseau M, v. Frenckell R, Cerfontaine JL, Papart P, Franck G, Timsit-Berthier M, Geenen V, Legros JJ (1987) Neuroendocrine evaluation of catecholaminergic neurotransmission in mania. Psychiatry Res 22: 193–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aratö M, Endrös A, Polgar M (1979) Endocrinological changes in patients with sexual dysfunction under long-term neuroleptic treatment. Pharmacopsychiatry 12: 426–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Methodik und Dokumentation in der Psychiatrie (1972) Das AMP-System. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Baldessarini RJ, Arana GW, Kula NS, Campbell A, Harding M (1981) Preclinical studies of the pharmacology of aporphines. In: Gessa GL, Corsini GU (eds) Apomorphine and other dopaminomimetics, vol I. Raven Press, New York, 219–228Google Scholar
  12. Biosigma (1982) J - 125 Prolaktin RIA. Biosigma BroschüreGoogle Scholar
  13. Bird ED, Spokes EG, Iversen LL (1979) Increased dopamine concentrations in limbic areas of brain from patients dying with schizophrenia. Brain 102: 347–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bleuler E (1911) Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien. In: Aschaffenburg G (Hrsg) Handbuch der Psychiatrie, Spez. Teil, 4. Abt., 1. Hälfte, F. Benticke, Leipzig WienGoogle Scholar
  15. Bondy B, Ackenheil M, Elbert R, Fröhler M (1984) Binding of 3H-spiperone to human lymphocytes: A biological marker in schizophrenia? Psychiatry Res 15: 41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boyd AE, Lebovitz HE, Pfeiffer JB (1970) Stimulation of human growth hormone secretion by L-DOPA. N Engl J Med 283: 1425–1429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brambilla F, Bellodi L, Negri F, Smeraldi E, Malagoli G (1979) Dopamine receptor sensitivity in the hypothalamus of chronic schizophrenics after haloperidol therapy: growth hormone and prolactin response to stimuli. Psychoneuroendocrinology 4: 329–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bronstein I, Semendjajew K (1970) Taschenbuch der Mathematik. Harri Deutsch, Zürich FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown WA, Williams BW (1976) Methylphenidate increases serum growth hormone concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 3: 937–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown GM, Verhaegen H, Van Wimersma, Brugmans J (1982) Endocrine effects of domperidone: a peripheral blocking agent. Clin Endocrinol 15: 275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bunney BS jr, Walters JR, Roth RH, Aghajanian GK (1973) Dopaminergic neurons: effect of antipsychotic drugs and amphetamine on single unit activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 185: 560–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Burkman AM, Notari RE, van Tyle K (1974) Structural effects in drug distribution: comparative pharmacokinetics of apomorphine analogues. J Pharm Pharmacol 26: 493–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burt D, Creese J, Snyder S (1977) Antischizophrenic drugs: Chronic treatment elevates dopamine receptor binding in brain. Science 196: 326–328Google Scholar
  24. Cammani F, Massara F, Belforte L, Molinatti GM (1975) Changes in plasma growth hormone levels in normal and acromegalic subjects following administration of 2bromo-alpha-ergocryptine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 40: 363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carlsson A, Lindquist M (1963) Effect of chlorpromazine or haloperidol on formation of 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine in mouse brain. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 20: 140–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carlsson A (1979) The impact of catecholamine research on medical science and practice. In: Usdin E, Kopin I, Banchas J (eds) Basic and clinical frontiers, vol I. Pergamon Press, New York, 4–19Google Scholar
  27. Casper RC, Davis JM, Pandey GN, Garver DL, Dekirmenjian H (1977) Neuroendocrine and amine studies in affective illness. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2: 105–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castellani S, Ziegler MG, van Kammen DP, Lake CR (1982) Plasma norepinephrine and serum dopamine:beta-hydroxylase activity in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39: 1145–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chalmers JP, Baldessarini RJ, Wurtman RJ (1971) Effects of L-DOPA on norepinephrine metabolism in the brain. Proc Nat Acad of Sci 68: 662–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Checkley SA, Slade AP, Shur E (1981) Growth hormone and other responses to clonidine in patients with endogenous depression. Brit J Psychiatry 138: 51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chouinard G, Jones B (1980) Neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis: Clinical and pharmacological characteristics. Am J Psychiatry 137: 16–21Google Scholar
  32. Cleghorn JM, Brown GM, Brown PJ, Kaplan RD, Mitton J (1983) Growth hormone responses to graded doses of apomorphine HCL in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry, 18: 875–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cleghorn JM, Brown GM, Brown PJ, Kaplan RD, Mitton J (1983) Longitudinal instability of hormone responses in schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 7: 545–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Collu AR, Jequier JC, Leboeuf G, Letarte J, Duchaine JR (1975) Endocrine effects of pimozide, a spezific dopaminergic blocker. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 981–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Corn TH, Hale AS, Thompson C, Bridges PK, Checkley SA (1984) A comparison of the growth hormone responses to clonidine and apomorphine in the same patients with endogenous depression. Br J Psychiatry 144: 636–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Corsini GU, Piccardi MP, Bocchetta A, Bernardi F, Del Zompo M (1981) Behavioral effects of apomorphine in man: Dopamine receptor implications. In: Corsini GU, Gessa GL (eds) Clinical pharmacology, vol II. Raven Press, New York, 13–24Google Scholar
  37. Cross AJ, Crow TJ, Owen F (1981) H-Flupenthixol binding in post mortem brains of schizophrenics: Evidence for a selective increase in dopamine D2 receptors. Psychopharmacology 74: 122–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Crow TJ (1973) Catecholamine containing neurons and electrical selfstimulation: II. A theoretical interpretation and some psychiatric implications. Psychol Med 3: 66–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Crow TJ (1982) Two dimensions of pathology in schizophrenia: Dopaminergic and nondopaminergic. Psychopharmacol Bull 18: 22–29Google Scholar
  40. Dahlström A, Fuxe K (1965) Evidence for the existence of monoamine containing neurons in the central nervous system. II. Experimentally induced changes in the intramural amine levels of bulbospinal neuron systems. Acta Physiol Scand 64 [Suppl] 247: 1–36Google Scholar
  41. Davis JM, Cole JD (1975) Antipsychotic drugs. In: Freedman AM, Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ (eds) Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry, vol II. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1921–1941Google Scholar
  42. Davis JM, Tamminga C, Schaeffer MH, Smith RC (1981) Effects of apomorphine on schizophrenia. In: Corsini GU, Gessa GL (eds) Apomorphine and other dopaminomimetics, vol H. Raven Press, New York, 45–48Google Scholar
  43. Davis JM, Vogel C, Gibbons R, Pavkovic J, Zhang M (1984) Pharmacoendocrinology of schizophrenia. In: Brown GM, Koslow SH, Reichlin S (eds) Neuroendocrinology and Psychiatric Disorder. Raven Press, New York, 29–54Google Scholar
  44. Deklaration von Helsinki/Tokio (1976) Weltärztebund, 29. Generalversammlung des Weltärztebundes, Tokio 1975. Dtsch Ärzteb1: 131–133Google Scholar
  45. Delini-Stula A (1986) Neuroanatomical, neuropharmacological and neurobiochemical target systems for antipsychotic activity of neuroleptics. Pharmacopsychiatry 19: 134–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dimsdale JE, Moss J (1980) Plasma catecholamines in stress and exercise. JAMA 243: 340–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ernst AM (1967) Mode of action of apomorphine and dexamphetamine on gnawing compulsion in rats. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 10: 316–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ettigi P, Nair PV, Lal S, Cervantes P, Guyda H (1976) Effect of apomorphine on growth hormone and prolactin in schizophrenic patients, with or without oral dyskinesia, withdrawn fom chronic neuroleptic therapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 39: 870–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Farley IJ, Price KS, Mc Cullough E, Deck JHN, Hordynski W, Hornykiewicz 0 (1978) Norepinephrine in chronic paranoid schizophrenia: above normal levels in limbic forebrain. Science 200: 456–458Google Scholar
  50. Ferrier I, Johnstone E, Crow TJ (1984) Hormonal effects of apomorphine in schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 144: 349–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferrier N, Johnstone E, Crow TJ (1987) Growth hormone response to apomorphine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44: 93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Frazer A (1975) Adrenergic responses to depression: Implications for a receptor defect. In: Mendels J (ed) The psychobiology of depression. Spectrum, New York, 7–26Google Scholar
  53. Freedman R, Kirch D, Bell J, Adler LE, Pecevich M, Pachtman E, Denver P (1982) Clonidine treatment of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 65: 35–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fuze K, Ungerstedt U (1970) Histochemical, biochemical and functional studies on central monoamine neurons after acute and chronic administration. In: Costa E, Garattini S (eds) Amphetamine and related compounds, Raven Press, New York, 257–288Google Scholar
  55. Fuxe K, Agnati L, Zoli M, Härfstrand A, Grimaldi R, Bemardi P, Camurri M, Goldstein M (1985) Development of quantitative methods for the evaluation of the entity of neuroactive substances in nerve terminal populations in discrete areas of the central nervous system: Evidence for hormonal regulations of cotransmission. In: Agnati L, Fuxe K (eds) Wenner-Gren Symposium on Quantitative Neuroanatomy in Transmitter Research, Stockholm, Sweden, Mai 3–4. 1984, Macmillan Press, London, 157–175Google Scholar
  56. Garver DL, Pandey GN, Dekirmenjian H, De Leon-Jones F (1975) Growth hormone and catecholamines in affective disease. Am J Psychiatry 132: 1149–1153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Garver DL, Zemlan F, Hirschowitz J, Hitzemann R, Mavroidis ML (1984) Dopamine and non-dopamine psychoses. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 84: 138–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gattaz WF, Riederer P, Reynolds GP, Gattaz D, Beckmann H (1983) Dopamine and noradrenaline in the cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Res 8: 243–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gerlach J (1979) Tardive dyskinesia. Dan Med Bull 26: 209–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Glgwinsky J, Axelrod J (1965) Effects of drugs on the uptake, release and metabolism of H-norepinephrine in the rat brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 149: 43–48Google Scholar
  61. Gomes UCR, Shanley BC, Potgieter L, Roux JT (1980) Noradrenergic overactivity in chronic schizophrenia: Evidence based on cerebrospinal fluid noradrenaline and cyclic nucleotide concentrations. Br J Psychiatry 137: 346–351Google Scholar
  62. Omen PH, Sachar EJ, Altman N, Langer G, Tabrizi MA, Halpern FS (1978) Relation of plasma prolactin to clinical response in schizophrenic patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 1222–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heinrich K, Wegener I, Bender HJ (1968) Späte extrapyramidale Hyperkinesen bei neuroleptischer Langzeittherapie. Pharmacopsychiatry 1: 169–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hökfelt T, Ljungdahl A, Fuxe K, Johansson 0 (1974) Dopamine nerve terminals in the rat limbic cortex: Aspects of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Science 184: 177–179Google Scholar
  65. Homykiewicz O (1976) Neurohumoral interactions and basal ganglia function and dysfunction. In: Yahr MD (ed) The basal ganglia. Raven Press, New York, 269–278Google Scholar
  66. ICD-9 (1980) Diagnosenschlüssel und Glossar psychiatrischer Krankheiten, 9. Revision. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Imura H, Kato Y, Ikeda M, Morimoto M, Yawata M (1971) Effect of adrenergic blocking or -stimulating agents on plasma growth hormone, immunoreactive insulin, and blood free fatty acid levels in man. J Clin Invest 50: 1069–1079PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Janowsky DS, Davis JM (1976) Methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine and lefamphetamine: effects on schizophrenic symptoms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 304–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jenner P, Marsden CD (1983) Neuroleptics and tardive dyskinesia. In: Coyle JT, Enna SJ (eds) Neuroleptics: Neurochemical, behavioral and clinical perspectives. Raven Press, New York, 223–254Google Scholar
  70. Jimerson DC, Post RM, Stoddard FJ, Gillin JC, Bunney WE (1980) Preliminary trial of the noradrenergic agonist clonidine in psychiatric patients. Biol Psychiatry 15: 45–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jimerson DC, Cutler NR, Post RM, Rey A, Gold PW, Brown GM, Bunney WE (1984) Neuroendocrine responses to apomorphine in depressed patients and healthy control subjects. Psychiatry Res 13: 1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jones BE, Bobillier P, Pin C, Jouvet M (1973) The effects of lesions of catecholaminecontaining neurons upon monoamine content of the brain and EEG and behavioral waking in the cat. Brain Res 58: 157–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kamberi IA, Schneider HPG, Mc Cann SM (1970) Action of dopamine to induce release of FSH-releasing factor ( FRF) from hypothalamic tissue in vitro. Endocrinology 86: 278–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kane MD, John M (1989) The current status of neuroleptic therapy. J Clin Psychiatry 50: 322–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kebabian JW, Calne DB (1979) Multiple receptors for dopamine. Nature 277: 93–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kemali D, Del Vecchio M, Maj M (1982) Increased noradrenaline levels in CSF and plasma of schizophrenic patients. Biol Psychiatry 17: 711–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Klawans HL, Goetz CG,Perlik S (1980) Tardive dyskinesia: Review and update. Am J Psychiatry 137: 900–908Google Scholar
  78. Kleinberg DL, Noel GL, Frantz AG (1971) Chlorpromazine stimulation and L-DOPA suppression of plasma prolactin in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 33: 873–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kleinman JE, Reid A, Lake CR, Wyatt RJ (1985) Studies of norepinephrine in schizophrenia. In: Lake CR, Ziegler MG (eds) The catecholamines in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Butterworth, London, 285–311Google Scholar
  80. Kobinger W (1979) Alpha-adrenoreceptors and the action of clonidine–like drugs. Wenner-Gren-Center Intern Symposium Series 33: 143–150Google Scholar
  81. Kolakowska T, Wiles DH, Gelder MG, Mc Nelly AS (1976) Clinical significance of plasma chlorpromazine levels. Psychopharmacology 49: 101–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Koulu M, Lammintausta R, Dahlström S (1979) Stimulatory effect of acute baclofen administration on human growth hormone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48: 1038–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kraepelin E (1899) Psychiatrie - Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte, 6. Aufl. Bd I I. JA Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  84. Krulich L, Mayfield MA, Steele MK, Mc Millen BA, Mc Cann SM, Koenig JI (1982) Differential effects of pharmacological manipulations of central alpha-1- and alpha-2adrenergic receptors on the secretion of thyrotropin and growth hormone in male rats. Endocrinology 110: 796–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lake CR, Sternbeger DE, van Kammen DP, Ballenger JC, Ziegler MG, Post RM, Kopin IJ, Bunney WE (1980) Schizophrenia: Elevated cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine. Science 207: 331–333Google Scholar
  86. Lake CR, Ziegler GM (1985) Techniques for the assessment and interpretation of catecholamine measurements in neuropsychiatrie patients. In: Lake CR, Ziegler MG (eds) The catecholamines in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Butterworth, London, 1–36Google Scholar
  87. Lal S, Vega CE de la, Sourkes TL, Friesen HG (1973) Effect of apomorphine on growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in human serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37: 719–724Google Scholar
  88. Lal S, Tolis G, Martin JB, Brown GM, Guyda H (1975) Effect of clonidine on growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 827–832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lal S, Nair PV, Thavundayil JX, Monks RL, Guyda H (1983) Clonidine–induced growth-hormone secretion in chronic schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 68: 82–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Langer G, Sachar EJ, Halpern FS, Gruen PH, Solomon M (1977) The prolactin response to neuroleptic drugs. A test of dopaminergic blockade: Neuroendocrine studies in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45: 996–1002Google Scholar
  91. Le Fur G, Zarifian E, Phan T, Cuche H, Flamier A, Buochami F, Bursevin MC, Loo H, Gerard A, Uzan A (1983) 3H-spiperon binding in lymphocytes: changes in two different groups of schizophrenic patients and effects of neuroleptic treatment. Life Sci 32: 245–249Google Scholar
  92. Leonidovich P (1986) Biological studies of schizophrenia in europe. Schizophr Bull 12: 83–100Google Scholar
  93. Maany I, Mendels J, Frazer A, Brunswick D (1979) A study of growth hormone release in depression. Neuropsychobiology 5: 282–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mancini AM, Guitelman A, Vargas CA, Debeljuk L, Aparicio NJ (1976) Effect of sulpiride on serum prolactin levels in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42: 181–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. MacCann SM, Vijayan E, Negro-Vilar A, Mizunuma H, Mangat H (1984) Gamma aminobutyric acid ( GABA), a modulator of anterior pituitary hormone secretion by hypothalamic and pituitary action. Psychoneuroendocrinology 9: 97–106Google Scholar
  96. Maclndoe JH, Turkington RW (1973) Stimulation of human prolactin secretion by intravenous infusion of L-tryptophan. J Clin Invest 52: 1972–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. MacWilliam JR, Meldrum BS (1983) Noradrenergic regulation of growth hormone secretion in the baboon. Endocrinology 112, 1: 254–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Martin JB (1973) Neural regulation of growth hormone secretion. N Engl J Med 288: 1384–1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Martin JB, Lal S, Tolis G, Friesen HG (1974) Inhibition by apomorphine of prolactin secretion in patients with elevated serum prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39: 180–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Martin JB, Reichlin S, Brown GM (eds) (1977) Clinical neuroendocrinology. Davis, Philadelphia, 147–178Google Scholar
  101. Martin-Du-Pan R, Baumann D (1979) Neuroendocrine effects of chronic neuroleptic therapy in male psychiatric patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology 3: 245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Matussek N, Ackenheil M, Hippius H, Müller F, Schröder H-TH, Schultes H, Wasilewski B (1980) Effect of clonidine on growth hormone release in psychiatric patients and controls. Psychiatry Res 2: 25–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Matussek N (1982) Erweiterung und Einschränkung der Dopamin-Hypothese der Schizophrenie. In: Huber G (Hrsg.) Diagnostik, Basis-Symptome und biologische Parameter. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, 315–318Google Scholar
  104. Matussek N, Ackenheil M, Herz M (1984) The dependence of the clonidine growth hormone test on alkohol drinking habits and the menstrual cycle. Psychoneuroendocrinology 9: 173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Matussek N (1988) Catecholarnines and mood:neuroendocrine aspects. In: Ganten D, Pfaff D (eds) Current topics in neuroendocrinology, vol 8. Neuroendocrinology of mood. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, 141–182Google Scholar
  106. May J, Baran L, Sowinska H, Zielinski M (1975) The influence of cholinolytics on clonidine action. Pol J Phannacol Pharm 27 (1): 17Google Scholar
  107. Meltzer HY, Stahl SM (1976) The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: a review. Schizophr Bull 2: 19–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Meltzer HY, Busch D, Fang VS (1981) Hormones, dopamine receptors and schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology 6, 1: 17–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Meltzer HY, Kolakowska T, Fang VS, Fogg L, Robertson A, Lewine R, Strahilevitz M, Busch D (1984) Growth hormone and prolactin response to apomorphine in schizophrenia and the major affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 512–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Meltzer HY (1984) Neuroendocrine abnormalities in schizophrenia: Prolactin, growth hormone and gonadotrophins. In: Brown GM, Koslow SH, Reichlin S (eds) Neuroendocrinology and psychiatric disorder. Raven Press, New York, 1–28Google Scholar
  111. Mueller GP, Simpkins J, Meites J, Moore KE (1976) Differential effects of dopamine agonists and haloperidol on release of prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, growth hormone and luteinizing hormone in rats. Neuroendocrinology 20: 121–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Müller P (1983) Was sollen wir Schizophrenen raten: Medikamentöse Langzeitprophylaxe oder Intervallbehandlung? Nervenarzt 54: 477–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Muller P, Seeman P (1978) Dopaminergic supersensitivity after neuroleptics: Time course and specifity. Psychopharmacology 60: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Müller-Spahn F, Ackenheil M, Albus M, May G, Naber D, Welter D, Zander K (1984) Neuroendocrine effects of apomorphine in chronic schizophrenic patients under longterm neuroleptic therapy and after drug withdrawal: Relations to psychopathology and tardive dyskinesia. Psychopharmacology 84: 436–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Müller-Spahn F, Ackenheil M, Albus M, Botschev C, Naber D, Welter D (1986) Neuroendocrine effects of clonidine in chronic schizophrenic patients under long-term neuroleptic therapy and after drug withdrawal: Relations to psychopathology. Psychopharmacology 88: 190–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Naber D, Ackenheil M, Laakmann G, Fischer H, Werder K von (1980) Basal and stimulated levels of prolactin, TSH and LH in serum of chronic schizophrenic patients, long-term treated with neuroleptics. Pharmacopsychiatry 13: 325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. National Institute of Mental Health (1976) 028 CGI. Clinical Global Impressions. In: Guy W (ed) ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychophanmacology, Rev Ed Rockville, 217–222Google Scholar
  118. Nedopil N, Weissbrummer J, Rüther E (1984) Neuroendocrine changes during the course of neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenic patients. In: Shah N, Donald AG (eds) Psychoneuroendocrine Dysfunction. Plenum Medical Book, New York London, 583–598Google Scholar
  119. Neumeyer JL, Lal S, Baldessarini RJ (1981) Historical highlights of the chemistry, pharmacology and early clinical uses of apomorphine. In: Gessa GL, Corsini GU (eds) Apomorphine and other dopaminomimetics, vol I. Raven Press, New York, 209–218Google Scholar
  120. Osmond H, Smythies J (1952) Schizophrenia: A new approach. J. Ment Sci 98: 309–315Google Scholar
  121. Overall JE, Gorham DR (1976) Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In: Guy W (ed) ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology, Rev Ed Rockville, 157–169Google Scholar
  122. Owen F, Crow TJ, Poulter M, Cross AJ, Longden A, Riley GJ (1978) Increased dopamine receptor sensitivity in schizophrenia. Lancet 2: 223–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pandey GN, Garver DL, Tamminga C, Ericksen S, Ali SJ, Davis JM (1977) Postsynaptic supersensitivity in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 134: 518–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Peroutka SJ, U’Prichard DC, Greenberg DA, Snyder SH (1977) Neuroleptic drug interactions with norepinephrine alpha-receptor binding sites in rat brain. Neuropharmacology 16: 549–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Peroutka SJ, Snyder SH (1980) Relationship of neuroleptic drug effects at brain dopamine, serotonin, a-adrenergic and histamine receptors to clinical potency. Am J Psychiatry 137: 1518–1522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Petersen EN (1981) Pre-and postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism by neuroleptics in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 69: 399–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pozo del E, Re del RB, Varga L, Friesen H (1972) The inhibition of prolactin secretion in man by CB-154 (2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 35: 768–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Quabbe HJ (1986) Growth Hormone. In: Lightman SL, Everitt BJ (eds) Neuroendocrinology, Blackwell, London, 409–449Google Scholar
  129. Quattrone A, Tedeschi G, Aguglia U, Scopacasa F, di Landro GF, Annunziato L (1983) Prolactin secretion in man: A useful tool to evaluate the activity of drugs on central 5hydrozytryptaminergic neurones: Studies with fenfluramine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 16: 471–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Rice HE, Smith ChB, Silk KR, Rosen J (1984) Platelet alpha -adrenergic receptors in schizophrenic patients before and after phenothiazine treatment. Psychiatry Res 12: 69–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rose RM (1984) Overview of endocrinology of stress. In: Brown GM, Koslow SH, Reichlin S (eds) Neuroendocrinology and Psychiatric Disorder. Raven Press, New York, 95–122Google Scholar
  132. Rotrosen J, Angrist B, Gershon S (1976) Dopamine receptor alteration in schizophrenia: Neuroendocrine evidence. Psychopharmacology 51: 1–7Google Scholar
  133. Rotrosen J, Angrist B, Clark C, Gershon S, Halpern F, Sachar E (1978a) Suppression of prolactin by dopamine agonists in schizophrenics and controls. Am J Psychiatry 135: 949–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rotrosen J, Angrist B, Paquin J (1978b) Neuroendocrine studies with dopamine agonists in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacol Bull 14: 14–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rotrosen J, Angrist B, Gershon S, Paquin J, Branchey L, Oleshansky M, Halpern F, Sachar E (1979) Neuroendocrine effects on apomorphine: Characterization of response patterns and application to schizophrenia research. Br J Psychiatry 135: 444–456Google Scholar
  136. Saraffof M, Davis L, Rüther E (1979) Clozapine induced increase of human plasma norepinephrine. J Neural Transm 46: 175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sedvall G (1979) Neuroendocrine correlates in schizophrenia. In: Müller EE, Agnoli A (eds) Neuroendocrine correlates in neurology and psychiatry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 195–209Google Scholar
  138. Seeman P (1980) Brain dopamine receptors. Pharmacol Rev 32: 177–189Google Scholar
  139. Siever LJ, Insel TR, Jimerson DC, Lake CR, Uhde TW, Aloi J, Murphy DL (1983) Growth hormone response to clonidine in obsessive-compulsive patients. Br J Psychiatry 142: 184–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Snyder SH (1972) Catecholamines in the brain as mediators of amphetamine psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 27: 169–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Spengler RN, Smith CB (1982) Chronic chlorpromazine alters spezific binding of tritiated clonidine to membranes from various areas of rat brain. Pharmacologist 24: 692Google Scholar
  142. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E (1982) Forschungs-Diagnose-Kriterien (RDC), Deutsche Bearbeitung Klein HE. Beltz, Weinheim BaselGoogle Scholar
  143. Spring B, Nuechterlein KH, Sugarman J, Matthysse S (1977) The “New Look” in studies of schizophrenic attention and information processing. Schizophrenia Bull 3: 470–482Google Scholar
  144. Sternberg DE, van Kammen DP, Lake CR, Ballenger JC, Marder STR, Burney WE (1981) The effect of punozide on CSF norepinephrine in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 138: 1045–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Sugerman AA (1967) A pilot study of ST-155 (catapres) in chronic schizophrenics. J Clin Pharmacol 7: 226–230Google Scholar
  146. Tamminga CA, Smith RC, Pandey G, Frohmann LA, Davis JM (1977) A neuroendocrine study of supersensitivity in tardive dyskinesia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 34: 1199–1203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tamminga CA, Crayton JW, Chase TN (1978) GABA-agonist therapy in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 135: 746–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Tamminga CA, De Fraites EG, Gotts MD, Chase TN (1981) Apomorphine and NPropylnorapomorphine in the treatment of schizophrenia. In: Corsini GU, Gessa GL (eds) Apomorphine and other dopaminomimetics, vol II. Raven Press, New York, 49–55Google Scholar
  149. Terry LC (1984) Catecholamine regulation of growth hormone and thyrotropin in mood disorders. In: Brown GM, Koslow SH, Reichlin S (eds) Neuroendocrinology and psychiatric disorder. Raven Press, New York, 237–254Google Scholar
  150. Thomer MO, Ryan SM, Wass JAH, Jones A, Bouloux P, Williams S, Besser GM (1978) Effect of the dopamine agonist lergotrile mesylate on circulating anterior pituitary hormones in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47: 372–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Tuomisto J, Mannistö P (1985) Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormones. Pharmacological reviews. Am Soc Pharmacol Exp Ther 37: 249–332Google Scholar
  152. Uhde TW, Vittone BJ, Siever LJ, Kaye WH, Post RM (1986) Blunted growth hormone response to clonidine in panic disorder patients. Biol Psychiatry 21: 1077–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Van Valkenburg C, Winokur G (1984) Hypertension and paranoia. Am J Psychiatry 141: 999–1000Google Scholar
  154. Venables PH (1975) Psychophysiological studies of schizophrenic pathology. In: Venables PH, Christie MJ (eds) Research in psychophysiology. Wiley, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  155. Watson SJ, Akil H, Berger PA (1979) Some observations on the opiate peptides and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 35–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Webster DD (1968) Critical analysis of disability in Parkinson’s disease. Mod Treatm (NY) 5: 257–282Google Scholar
  157. Werder K von (1975) Wachstumshormon-und Prolaktin-Sekretion des Menschen. Urban und Schwarzenberg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  158. Winblad B, Bucht G, Gottfries CG, Roos BE (1979) Monoamines and monoamine metabolites in brains from demented schizophrenics. Acta Psychiatr Scand 60: 17–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wöller W, Tegeler J (1983) Späte extrapyramidale Hyperkinesen, Klinik-Prävalenz-Pathophysiologie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiat 51: 131–157Google Scholar
  160. Wode-Helgodt B, Borg S, Fyro B, Sedvall G (1978) Clinical effects and drug concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in psychotic patients treated with fixed doses of chlorpromazine. Acta Psychiatr Scand 58: 149–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wong DF, Wagner HN, Tune LE, Dannals RF, Pearlson GD, Links JM, Tamminga CA, Broussolle EP, Ravert HT, Wilson AA, Toung JK, Malat J, Williams JA, O’Tuama LA, Snyder SH, Kuhar MJ, Gjedde A (1986) Positron emission tomography reveals elevated D,-dopamine receptors in drug-naive schizophrenics. Science 234: 1558–1563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zander KJ, Fischer B, Zimmer R, Ackenheil M (1981) Long-term neuroleptic treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients, clinical and biochemical effects of withdrawal. Psychopharmacology 73: 43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zemlan FP, Hirschowitz J, Sautter F, Garver DL (1986) Relationship of psychotic symptom clusters in schizophrenia to neuroleptic treatment and growth hormone response to apomorphine. Psychiatry Res 18: 239–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franz Müller-Spahn
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychiatrische KlinikUniversität GöttingenGöttingenBundesrepublik Deutschland

Personalised recommendations