Electron Holography and Its Applications to Surface Observation

  • A. Tonomura
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 17)


The phase distribution of an electron beam is now measurable to a precision of 1/100 of the wavelength by using both electron holography and a “coherent” field-emission electron beam. Holographic interference micrographs obtained in this way can display the thickness distribution of a thin film or the topography of a single-crystalline surface in atomic dimensions.


Electron Beam Thickness Distribution Optical Reconstruction Object Wave Interference Microscopy 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Tonomura
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Research LaboratoryHitachi, Ltd.Hatoyama, SaitamaJapan

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