Electron Holography and Its Applications to Surface Observation

  • A. Tonomura
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 17)

Abstract

The phase distribution of an electron beam is now measurable to a precision of 1/100 of the wavelength by using both electron holography and a “coherent” field-emission electron beam. Holographic interference micrographs obtained in this way can display the thickness distribution of a thin film or the topography of a single-crystalline surface in atomic dimensions.

Keywords

Coherence GaAs Beryllium Molybdenite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    K. Takayanagi and K. Yagi, Trans. Jpn. Inst. Metals 24, 37 (1983).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    N. Osakabe et al., Surf. Sci. 97, 393 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    A. Endo, H. Daimon and S. Ino, to be published in Proceedings of the 12th International Congress for Electron Microscopy., Seattle 1990.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. V. Crewe et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 39, 576 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    D. Gabor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 197, 454 (1949).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    A. Tonomura et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 60 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    A. Tonomura, Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 639 (1987); see also A. Tonomura, Physics Today, April (1990) p. 22.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1123 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    N. Osakabe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2969 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    G. Möllenstedt and H. Düker, Naturwissenschaftan 42, 41 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    J. Endo et al., Proceedings of the 13th International Comission for Optics, edited by H. Ohzu ( Organizing Committee, Sapporo, 1984 ) p. 480.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Tonomura
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Research LaboratoryHitachi, Ltd.Hatoyama, SaitamaJapan

Personalised recommendations