Testis and Scrotum

  • Kyoung Sik Cho
  • Barbara Hsu
  • Robert F. Mattrey
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Cross-sectional imaging modalities have greatly improved the diagnosis of scrotal disease. In the clinical evaluation of scrotal abnormalities, physical examination may be difficult and inadequate because of severe pain, tenderness, swelling, and marked distortion of the inner contents of the scrotum. Currently, high-resolution ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice because of its excellent depiction of scrotal anatomy, low cost, short examination time, and lack of ionizing radiation (Leopold et al. 1979; Carroll and Gross 1983; Hricak and Filly 1983; Krone and Carroll 1985; Benson et al. 1989; O’Mara and Rifkin 1991). Color Doppler has added both anatomic and functional details relevant to the evaluation of the testis and its surrounding structures (Middleton and Melson 1989; Burks et al. 1990; Krieger et al. 1990; Lerner et al. 1990; Middleton et al. 1990; Horstman et al. 1991a,b).


Spermatic Cord Testicular Tumor Undescended Testis Testicular Torsion Tunica Albuginea 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amelar RD, Dubin L (1973) Male infertility: current diagnosis and treatment. Urology 1: 1 - 31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arcadia J A (1952) Cysts of the tunica albuginea testis. J Urol 68: 631 - 635Google Scholar
  3. Aristizabal S, Davis JR, Miller RC et al. (1978) Bilateral primary germ cell testicular tumors: report of four cases and review of the literature. Cancer 42: 591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson GO Jr, Patrick LE, Ball TI Jr, Stephenson CA, Broecker BH, Woodard JR (1992) The normal and abnormal scrotum in children: evaluation with color Doppler sonography. AJR 158: 613 - 617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker LL, Hajek PC, Burkhard TK, et al. (1987a) Magnetic resonance imaging of the scrotum: normal anatomy. Radiology 163: 89 - 92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker LL, Hajek PC, Burkhard TK et al. (1987b) Magnetic resonance imaging of the scrotum: pathologic conditions. Radiology 163: 93 - 98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker LL, Hajek PC, Burkhard TK, Mattrey RF (1987c) Poly orchidism: evaluation by MR. AJR 148: 305 - 306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Batata MA, Whitmore WF Jr, Hilaris BS et al. (1980) Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer. J Urol 124: 382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Belker AM (1981) The varicocele and male infertility. Urol Clin North Am 8: 41 - 51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ben Chaim J, Leibovitch I, Ramon J, Winberg D, Goldwasser B (1992) Etiology of acute scrotum at surgical exploration in children, adolescents and adults. Eur Urol 21: 45 - 47Google Scholar
  11. Benson CB, Doubilet PM, Richie JP (1989) Sonography of the male genital tract. AJR 153: 705 - 713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berger Y, Srinivas V, Hajdu SI, Herr HW (1985) Epidermoid cysts of the testis: role of conservative surgery. J Urol 134: 962 - 963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bird K, Rosenfield AT (1984) Testicular infarction secondary to acute inflammatory disease: demonstration by B-scan ultrasound. Radiology 152: 785 - 788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bird K, Rosenfield AT, Taylor KJW (1979) Ultrasonography in testicular torsion. Radiology 147: 527 - 543Google Scholar
  15. Brenner JS, Cumming WA, Ros PR (1989) Testicular epidermoid cyst: sonographic and MR findings. AJR 152: 1344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown DL, Benson CB, Doherty FJ et al. (1992) Cystic testicular mass caused by dilated rete testis: sonographic findings in 31 cases. AJR 158: 1257 - 1259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Burks DD, Markey BJ, Burkhard TK, Balsara ZN, Haluszka HM, Canning DA (1990) Suspected testicular torsion and ischemia: evaluation with color Doppler sonography. Radiology 175: 815 - 821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Burney B, Klatte E (1979) Ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen in the staging and management of testicular carcinoma. Radiology 132: 415 - 419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Caldwell WL, Kudemian MT, Frias Z et al. (1980) The management of testicular seminomas. Cancer 45 [Suppl]: 1768 - 1774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cardigan P (1989) Polyorchidism diagnosed by ultrasound. Br J Radiol 62: 82 - 83Google Scholar
  21. Carroll BA, Gross DM (1983) High frequency scrotal sonography. AJR 140: 511 - 515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen DCP, Holder L, Melloul M (1983a) Radionuclide scrotal imaging: further experience with 210 patients. Part I. Anatomy, pathology and methods. J Nucl Med 24: 735-742Google Scholar
  23. Cho KS, Auh YH, Lee MG, Choi HY, Lee SG, Ahn HJ (1991) Testicular tumor: conventional MR imaging and Gd-DTPA enhancement. In: Book of abstracts, 77th scientific assembly and annual meeting. Radiology 181 [Suppl]: 115Google Scholar
  24. Cho KS, Semba CP, Trambert MA, Mattrey RF (1993) Torsion of the testicular appendages assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. JMRGoogle Scholar
  25. Clarke BG (1966) Incidence of varicocele in normal men and among men of different age. JAMA 198: 1121 - 1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen HL, Shapiro MA, Haller JO, Glassberg K (1992) Torsion of the testicular appendage sonographic diagnosis. J Ultrasound Med 11: 81 - 83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cour-Palar IJ (1966) Spontaneous descent of the testicle. Lancet 1: 430Google Scholar
  28. Dewire DM, Begun FP, Lawson RK, Fitzgerald S, Foley WD (1992) Color Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of the acute scrotum. J Urol 147: 89 - 91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Emory TH, Charboneau JW, Randall RV, Scheithauer BW, Grantham JG (1984) Occult testicular interstitialcell tumor in patients with gynecomastia: ultrasonic detection. Radiology 151: 474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fakhry J, Khoury A, Barakat K (1989) The hypoechoic band: a normal finding on testicular sonography. AJR 153: 321 - 323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Feld R, Middleton WD (1992) Recent advances in sonography of the testis and scrotum. Radiol Clin North Am 30: 1033 - 1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Finkelstein MS, Rosenberg HK, Snyder HM, Duckett JW (1986) Ultrasound evaluation of the scrotum in pediatrics. Urology 27: 1 - 9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fornage BD, Touche DH, Rifkin MD (1984) Small parts real-time sonography: a new “waterpath.” J Ultrasound Med 3: 355 - 357Google Scholar
  34. Friedland GW, Chang P (1988) The role of imaging in the management of impalpable undescended testis. AJR 151: 1107 - 1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fritzsche PJ, Hricak H, Kogan BA et al. (1987) Undescended testis: value of MRI. Radiology 164: 169 - 173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fritzsche PJ, Rifkin M, Hopkins CR, Piccoli CW (1992) Scrotum and testis. In: Stark DD, Bradley WG (eds) Magnetic resonance imaging, 2nd edn. Mosby Year Book, St. Louis, pp 2058 - 2079Google Scholar
  37. Gialason T, Noronha RFX, Gregory JG (1980) Acute epididymitis in boys: a 5 year retrospective study. J Urol 124: 533 - 534Google Scholar
  38. Glazer HS, Lee JKT, Melson GL, McClennan BL (1982) Sonographic detection of occult testicular neoplasms. AJR 138: 673 - 675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Glickman MF, Weiss RM, Itzchak Y (1977) Testicular venography for undescended testes. AJR 129: 67 - 70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldberg RM, Chilcote W, Kay R, Bodie B (1987) Sonographic findings in polyorchidism. J Clin Ultrasound 15: 412 - 415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gonda RL, Karo JJ, Forte RA, O’Donell KT (1986) Diagnosis of subclinical varicocele in infertility. AJR 184: 71 - 75Google Scholar
  42. Gooding GAW, Leonhardt W, Stein R (1987) Testicular cysts: US findings. Radiology 163: 537-538Google Scholar
  43. Grantham JG, Charboneau JW, Janes EM et al. (1985) Testicular neoplasm: 29 tumors studied by highresolution US. Radiology 157: 775 - 780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Grechi G, Zampi GC, Selli C, Carini M, Ucci M (1980) Polyorchidism and seminoma in a child. J Urol 123: 291 - 292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Green JR (1985) Computerized axial tomography vs spermatic venography in localization of the cryptorchid testis. Urology 26: 513 - 517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Greenberg SH (1977) Varicocele and male fertility. Fertil Steril 28: 699 - 706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gullenwater JY, Grayhack JT, Howards SS, Duckett JW (1987) Adult and pediatric urology. Year Book Medical, Chicago, pp 1955 - 1962Google Scholar
  48. Hadziselimovic F (1983) Cryptorchidism. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamm B, Fobbe F, Sorensen R, Felsenberg D (1986) Varicoceles: combined sonography and thermographyReferencesGoogle Scholar
  50. 2).
    Hamm B, Fobbe F, Sorensen R, Felsenberg D (1986) Varicoceles: combined sonography and thermographyReferencesGoogle Scholar
  51. c; essity to sedate boys less than 8 years of age (When compared to ultrasonography, the advantages of MRI are I in diagnosis and post therapeutic evaluation. Radiology 160:419-424Google Scholar
  52. Hamm B, Frobbe F, Loy V (1988) Testicular cysts: differentiation with US and clinical findings. Radiology 168: 19 - 23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hancock RA, Hodgins TE (1984) Polyorchidism. Urology 24: 303 - 307Google Scholar
  54. Harrison RG, Barkeley AT (1948) The distribution of the testicular artery (internal spermatic artery) to the human testis. Br J Urol 2: 57 - 66Google Scholar
  55. Hayward I, Trambert MA, Mattrey RF, Saltzstein SL, Demby AM (1990) Case report: MR imaging of vasculitis of the testis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 15: 502-504Google Scholar
  56. Holder L, Melloul M, Chen DCP (1981) Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging. Semin Nucl Med 11: 232 - 249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Horstman WG, Middleton WD, Melson GL, Siegel BA (1991a) Color Doppler US of the scrotum. Radiographics 11: 941 - 957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Horstman WG, Middleton WD, Melson GL et al. (1991b) Scrotal inflammatory disease: color Doppler US findings. Radiology 179: 55 - 59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hricak H, Filly RA (1983) Sonography of the scrotum. Invest Radiol 18: 112 - 121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hricak H, Jeffrey RB (1983) Sonography of acute scrotal abnormalities. Radiol Clin North Am 21: 595 - 603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hubbard AE, Ayers AB, MacDonald LM, James CE (1984) In utero torsion of the testis: antenatal and postnatal ultrasonic appearance. Br J Radiol 57: 644 - 646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hutschenreiter G, Alken P, Schneider H (1979) The value of sonography and lymphography in the detection of retroperitoneal metastases in testicular tumor. J Urol 122: 766 - 769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Janzen DL, Mathieson JR, Marsh JI, Cooperberg PL, del Rio P, Golding RH, Rifkin MD (1992) Testicular microlithiasis: sonographic and clinical features. AJR 158: 1057 - 1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson JO, Mattrey RF, Philpson J (1990) Differentiation of seminomatous from nonseminomatous testicular tumors with MR imaging. AJR 154: 539 - 543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Just M, Melchior S, Grebe P, Kreitner KF, Burger RA, Hohenfellner R, Thelen M (1992) MR tomography in testicular processes. The significance of Gd-DTPA enhanced sequence in comparison with plain T2-weighted sequences. ROFO 166: 527 - 531Google Scholar
  66. Kier R, McCarthy S, Rosenfield AT et al. (1988) Nonpalpable testes in young boys: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology 169: 429 - 433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kirschling RJ, Kvols LK, Charboneau JW, Grantham JG, Zincke H (1983) High-resolution ultrasonographic and pathologic abnormalities of germ cell tumors in patients with clinically normal testes. Mayo Clin Proc 58: 648 - 653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Klepp O, Olsson AM, Ous S, Nilsson S, Hoisaether PA, Tveter K (1991) Early clinical stages of nonseminomatous testis cancer. Evaluation of the primary treatment and follow-up procedures of the SWENOTECA project. Scand J Urol Nephrol 25: 179-190Google Scholar
  69. Krieger JN, Wang K, Mack L (1990) Preliminary evaluation of color Doppler imaging for investigation of intrascrotal pathology. J Urol 144: 904 - 907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Krone KD, Carroll BA (1985) Scrotal ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am 23: 121 - 139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Landa HM, Gylys-Morin V, Mattrey RF et al. (1987) MRI of the cryptorchid testis. Eur J Pediatr 146 [Suppl]: S16 - S17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Landa HM, Gylys-Morin V, Mattrey RF et al. (1988) Detection of testicular torsion by magnetic resonance imaging in a rat model. J Urol 140: 1178 - 1180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee JKT, Glazer HS (1982) Computed tomography in the localization of the nonpalpable testis. Urol Clin North Am 9: 397 - 404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Leopold GR, Woo VL, Scheible FW et al. (1979) High resolution ultrasonography of scrotal pathology. Radiology 131: 719 - 722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lerner RM, Mevorach RA, Hulbert WC, Rabinowitz R (1990) Color Doppler US in the evaluation of acute scrotal disease. Radiology 176: 355 - 358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Leung ML, Gooding GAW, Williams RD (1984) Highresolution sonography of scrotal contents in asymptomatic subjects. AJR 143: 161 - 164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lupetin AR, King W, Rich P, Lederman RB (1983a) Ultrasound diagnosis of testicular leukemia. Radiology 146: 171 - 172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lupetin AR, King W, Rich PJ, Lederman RB (1983b) The traumatized scrotum. Radiology 148: 203 - 207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Martin B, Conte J (1987) Ultrasonography of the acute scrotum. J Clin Ultrasound 15: 37 - 44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mattrey RF (1991) Magnetic resonance imaging of the scrotum. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 12: 95 - 108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Mattrey R, Trambert M (1990) MR imaging of the scrotum and testis. In: Edelman RR, Hesselink JR, Newhouse J, Sartoris DJ (eds) Clinical magnetic resonance imaging. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 952 - 979Google Scholar
  82. Maxwell AJ, Mamtora H (1990) Sonographic appearance of epidermoid cyst of the testis. J Clin Ultrasound 18: 188 - 190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McConnell JD, Peters PC, Lewis SE (1982) Testicular rupture in blunt scrotal trauma: review of 15 cases with recent application of testicular scanning. J Urol 128: 309 - 311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Meiches MD, Nurenberg P (1991) Sonographic appearance of a calcified simple epidermoid cyst of the testis. J Clin Ultrasound 19: 498 - 500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mennemeyer RP, Mason JT (1979) Non-neoplastic cystic lesions of the tunica albuginea: an electron microscopic and clinical study of 2 cases. J Urol 121: 373 - 375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Middleton WD, Melson GL (1989) Testicular ischemia: color Doppler sonographic findings in five patients. AJR 152: 1237 - 1239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Middleton WD, Siegel BA, Melson GL, Yates CK, Andriole GL (1990) Acute scrotal disorders: prospective comparison of color Doppler US and testicular scintigraphy. Radiology 177: 177 - 181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Mittemeyer BT, Lennox KW, Borski AA (1966) Epididymitis: a review of 10 cases. J Urol 95: 390 - 392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Moore KL (1988) The urogenital system. In: The developing human. Clinical oriented embryology, 4th edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 246 - 285Google Scholar
  90. O’mara EM, Rifkin MD (1991) Scrotum and contents. In: Resnick MI, Rifkin MD (eds) Ultrasonography of the urinary tract, 3rd edn. William and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 386 - 435Google Scholar
  91. Petros JA, Andriole GL, Middleton WD, Picus DD (1991) Correlation of testicular color Doppler ultrasound, physical examination, and venography in the detection of left varicocele in men with infertility. J Urol 145: 785 - 788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Phillips G, Kumari-Subaiya S, Swaitsky A (1983) Ultrasonic evaluation of the scrotum in lymphoproliferative disease. J Ultrasound 6: 169 - 175Google Scholar
  93. Pillari G, Rubenstein WA, Siess J (1980) Seminoma: improved imaging and tumor characterization with computed tomography. J Urol 123: 41 - 43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pinch L, Aceto T Jr, Myer-Bahlburg HFL (1974) Cryptorchidism. A pediatric review. Urol Clin North Am 1: 573-592Google Scholar
  95. Rajfer J (1992) Congenital anomalies of the testis. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Stamey TA, Vaughan ED Jr (eds) Campbell’s urology, 6th edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1543 - 1562Google Scholar
  96. Ralls PW, Larsen D, Johnson MB, Lee KP (1991) Color Doppler sonography of the scrotum Semin Ultrasound CT MR 12: 109 - 114Google Scholar
  97. Rao KG (1980) Traumatic rupture of the testis. Urology 20: 624 - 625Google Scholar
  98. Rholl KS, Lee JKT, Ling D et al. (1987) MR imaging of the scrotum with a high resolution surface coil. Radiology 163: 99 - 103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Richie JP (1992) Neoplasms of the testis. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Stamey TA, Vaughan ED Jr (eds) Campbell’s urology. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1222 - 1263Google Scholar
  100. Rifkin MD, Kurtz AB, Pasto ME, Goldberg BB (1983) Polyorchidism diagnosed preoperatively by ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 2: 93 - 94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rifkin MD, Kurtz AB, Pasto ME et al. (1984) The sonographic diagnosis of focal and diffuse infiltrative infracostal lesions. Urol Radiol 6: 20 - 26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rogers WF, Ralls PW, Boswell WD (1980) Obstruction of the inferior vena cava by seminoma. J Urol 124: 613 - 614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rolnick D, Kowanous S, Szanto P, Bush IM (1968) Anatomical incidence of testicular appendages. J Urol 100: 775 - 766Google Scholar
  104. Ryan PC, Whelan CA, Gaffney EF, Fitzpatrick JM (1988) The effect of unilateral experimental testicular torsion on spermatogenesis and fertility. Br J Urol 62: 359 - 366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Sadler TW (1990) Urogenital system. In: Langman’s medical embryology, 6th edn. William and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 260 - 296Google Scholar
  106. Schultz Lampel D, Bogaert G, Thuroff JW, Schlegel E, Cramer B (1991) MRI for evaluation of scrotal pathology. Urol Res 19: 289 - 292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Schwerk WB, Schwerk WN, Rodeck G (1983) Testicular tumors: prospective analysis of real-time US patterns and abdominal staging. Radiology 151: 369 - 374Google Scholar
  108. Scorer CG, Farrington GH (1972) Congenital deformities of the testis and epididymis Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Scott RF, Bayliss AP, Calder JF, Gravie WH (1986) Indications for ultrasound in the evaluation of the pathological scrotum. Br J Urol 58: 178 - 182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Seidenwurm D, Smathers RL, Lo RK et al. (1987) Testes and scrotum: MR imaging at 1.5T. Radiology 164: 393 - 398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Shah KH, Maxted WC, Chun B (1981) Epidermoid cysts of the testis: a report of three cases and an analysis of 141 cases from the world literature. Cancer 47: 577 - 582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Shah SN, Miller BM, Geisler E (1992) Polyorchidism discovered as testicular torsion. Urology 39: 543 - 544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Shawker TH, Nasser J, O’leary T et al. (1983) Ultrasonographic detection of “burned-out” primary testicular germ cell tumors in clinically normal testes. J Ultrasound Med 2: 477 - 479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Singer BR, Donaldson JG, Jackson DS (1992) Polyorchidism: functional classification and management strategy. Urology 39: 384 - 388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Smith WS, Brammer HM, Henry M, Frazier H (1991) Testicular microlithiasis: sonographic features with pathologic correlation. AJR 157: 1003 - 1004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sokal M, Peckham MJ, Hendry WF (1980) Bilateral germ cell tumours of the testis. Br J Urol 53: 158Google Scholar
  117. Tanagho EA (1992) Anatomy of the lower urinary tract. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Stamey TA, Vaughan ED Jr (eds) Campbell’s urology, 6th edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 40 - 69Google Scholar
  118. Tartar VM, Trambert MA, Balsara ZN, Mattrey RF (1993) Tubular ectasia of the testicle: sonographic and MR imaging appearance. AJR 160: 539 - 542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Thum G (1991) Polyorchidism: case report and review of literature. J Urol 145: 370 - 372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Thurner S, Hricak H, Carroll PR et al. (1988) Imaging the testis: comparison between MR imaging and US. Radiology 167: 631 - 636Google Scholar
  121. Trainer TD (1987) Histology of the normal testis. Am J Surg Pathol 11: 797 - 809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Trambert MA, Mattrey RF, Levine D, Berthoty D (1990) Subacute scrotal pain: evaluation of torsion versus epididymitis with MR imaging. Radiology 175: 53 - 56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Vick CW, Bird KI Jr, Rosenfield AT et al. (1982) Ultrasound of the scrotal contents. Radiology 144: 147 - 153Google Scholar
  124. Vick CW, Bird K, Rosenfield A et al. (1986) Extratesticular hemorrhage associated with torsion of the spermatic cord: sonographic demonstration. Radiology 158: 401 - 404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Vordermark JS II, Favila MO (1982) Testicular necrosis: a preventable complication of epididymitis. J Urol 128: 1322 - 1324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Wechsler H, Westfall M, Lattimer JK (1960) The earliest signs and symptoms in 127 male patients with genitourinary tuberculosis. J Urol 83: 801 - 803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Weingarten BJ, Kellman GM, Middleton WD, Gross ML (1992) Tubular ectasia within the mediastinum testis. J Ultrasound Med 11: 349 - 353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Weiss RM, Carter AR, Rosenfield AT (1986) High resolution real-time ultrasonography in the localization of the undescended testis. J Urol 135: 936 - 938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Weiss AJ, Kellman GM, Middleton WD, Kirkemo A (1992) Intratesticular varicocele: sonographic findings in two patients. AJR 158: 1061 - 1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. William R, Feiberg S, Kneight L, Traley E (1980) Abdominal staging of testicular tumors using ultrasonography and computed tomography. J Urol 123: 872 - 875Google Scholar
  131. Williamson RCN, Anderson JB (1986) The fate of the human testes following unilateral torsion. Br J Urol 58: 698 - 704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wolveson MK, Houttin E, Heiberh E et al. (1983) Comparison of CT with high resolution ultrasound in the localization of the undescended testis. Radiology 146: 133 - 136Google Scholar
  133. Zafaranloo S, Gerard PS, Wise G (1986) Bilateral neonatal testicular torsion: ultrasonographic evaluation. J Urol 135: 589 - 590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Zerin JM, DiPietro MA, Grignon A, Shea D (1990) Testicular infarction in the newborn: ultrasound findings. Pediatr Radiol 20: 329 - 300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ziffer JA, Nelson RC, Chezmar JL et al. (1989) Subclinical varicoceles: detection with MRI (abstract). Presented at SMRI Los Angeles. Magn Reson Imaging 7 [Suppl]: 78Google Scholar
  136. Zoeller G, Ringert RH (1991) Color-coded duplex sonography for diagnosis of testicular torsion. J Urol 146: 1288 – 1290PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyoung Sik Cho
    • 1
  • Barbara Hsu
    • 2
  • Robert F. Mattrey
    • 3
  1. 1.Asan Medical CenterUniversity of UlsanSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Sharp Rees-Stealy MedicalSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Magnetic Resonance Institute (8756)UCSD Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations