Sedation in Intensive Care
The term “sedation” as used by intensivists carries a number of meanings. While traditionally sedation is defined as use of hypnotic-sedative drugs to produce drowsiness, this term is misleading and dates from the days in which barbiturates were the only such drugs available . With the development of “tranquilizers”, the traditional sedative-hypnotic drugs have come to play a lesser role in daytime sedation, although the drugs traditionally classified as tranquilizers are more commonly used in psychiatric disorders than in the intensive care unit (ICU). Indeed, in the ICU the demand for and indication for sedation cover a wide spectrum, and the majority of drugs used have general depressant properties.
KeywordsFatigue Depression Respiration Morphine Hydrochloride
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Harvey SC (1975) Hypnotics and sedatives. In: Goodman LS, Gilman A (eds) The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 5th edn. MacMillan, New York, pp 102–123Google Scholar
- 3.Donegan JH, Traystman RJ, Koehler RC, Jones MD, Rogers MC (1985) Cerebrovascular hypoxic and autoregulatory response during reduced brain metabolism in man. Am J Physiol 249:421–429Google Scholar
- 5.Cousins MJ, Phillips GD (1981) Pain, anxiety, sleep in critical care: State of the art, vol 2. In: Shoemaker WC, Thompson WL (eds) Society of Critical Care Medicine, Los Angeles, pp 1–42Google Scholar
- 6.Wallace PAM, Bion JF, Ledingham IMcA (1988) The changing face of sedative practice in intensive care. In: Ledingham I McA (ed) Recent advances in Critical Care Medicine 3:69–94Google Scholar
- 8.Dasla JF, Hale KN, Stauffer GL, Tschampel MM (1988) Comparison of visual and turbidimetric methods for determining short term compatibility of intravenous critical care drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm 45:28:2361–2366Google Scholar
- 12.McKeag A (1991) A review of sedation practiced in intensive … (in press)Google Scholar
- 13.Lamber FA, Mitchell R, Frost J, Ratcliffe JG, Robertson WR (1983) Direct in vitro inhibitions of adrenal steiodogenesis by etomidate. Lancet 2:1270Google Scholar
- 15.Holaday JW, Bryant HU, Kenner JR, Bernton EW (1989) Brain endocrine and immune interactions: implications in intensive care. In: Bihari D, Holaday JW (eds) Brain failure. (Update in intensive care and emergency medicine, vol 9) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 1–14Google Scholar
- 19.Dirkson MSC, Vree TB, Driessen JJ (1987) Clinical pharmacokinetics of long term infusion of midazolam in critically ill patients. Anaesth Intens Care 15:440–444Google Scholar