The magnetic properties of solids have a purely quantum nature. Any classical system in thermal equilibrium cannot possess a magnetic moment, even in an external magnetic field. The appearance of magnetic moments at the crystal atoms is related to the spin moments of the electrons, which can interact due to quantum exchange effects, and leads to the appearance of spontaneous magnetic ordering. The values of such exchange interactions between spin moments are defined by the character of the electron wavefunction, i.e. by chemical bonding effects.
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