Hydatidiform Mole and Related Disorders

  • T. Maruo
  • M. Mochizuki


“Hydatidiform mole” basically means a fluid-filled cystic mass, it is derived from the Greek word hydatis meaning a drop of water, and the Latin word moles meaning a mass. A classic hydatidiform mole is an abnormal conceptus without an embryo, with gross hydropic swelling of the placental villi and usually pronounced trophoblastic proliferation of both cytotrophoblastic and syncytial elements. The villous swelling leads to central cistern formation with a concomitant compression of the connective tissue that has lost its vascularity. Microscopically there is complete villous hydrops, absence of chorionic blood vessels, and a variable degree of trophoblastic hyperplasia. The hydrops might be caused by hyperplasia or dysplasia of the trophoblast, leading to oversecretion of fluid into the villous stroma. This may explain the mechanism in molar change. When there is a failure of the villous vessels to link up with those of the embryo, partial hydatidiform mole may develop in the presence of an embryo.


Sugar Chain Hydatidiform Mole Molar Pregnancy Complete Hydatidiform Mole Invasive Mole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Elston CW (1978) Trophoblastic tumours of the placenta. In: Fox HF (ed) Pathology of the placenta. Saunders, London, p 368Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rustin GJS, Bagshawe KD, Hammond CB (1985) Gestational trophoblastic tumors. CRC Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 3: 103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Takeuchi S (1982) The incidence and management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. 10th World Congress on Obstetrics and Gynacology, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mochizuki M, Ashitaka Y, Maruo T, Masuko K, Harada A, Chough SY (1984) Sixteen years experience in treatment and folow-up of patients with trophoblastic diseases. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol 10: 15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Elston CW (1983) Development and structure of trophoblastic neoplasms. In: Loke YW, Whyte A (eds) Biology of trophoblast. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 187Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ichinoe K (1986) Mechanisms of origin of hydatidiform mole and its propensity to malignancy. In: Ichinoe K (ed) Trophoblastic diseases. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, p 3Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kajii T, Ohama K (1977) Androgenetic origin of hydatidiform mole. Nature 268: 633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wake N, Takagi N, Sasaki M (1978) Androgenesis as a cause of hydatidiform mole. JNCI 60: 51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoshina M, Boothby WR, Hussa RO, Pattilo RA, Camel HM, Boime I (1984) Segregation patterns of polymorphic restriction sites of the hCGa gene in trophoblastic disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 2504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jacobs PA, Wilson CM, Sprenkle JA, Rosenshein NB, Migeon B (1980) Mechanism of origin of complete hydatidiform moles. Nature 286: 714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goldstein DP, Berkowitz RS (1982) The diagnosis and management of molar pregnancy. In: Goldstein DP, Berkowitz RS (eds) Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 143Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saida K (1977) Thyroid function on trophoblastic neoplasias. Folia Endocrinol 53: 1023Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tojo S, Mochizuki M, Kanazawa S (1974) Comparative assay of hCG, hCT and hCS in molar pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 53: 369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mochizuki M, Maruo T (1987) Endocrine aspects of trophoblastic disease. In: Takamizawa H (ed) Trophoblastic diseases. Kanahara, Tokyo, p 61Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Szulman AE, Surti U (1978) The syndromes of hydatidiform mole. II. Morphologic evolution of the complete and partial mole. Am J Obstet Gynecol 132: 20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mochizuki M, Maruo T (1982) New approach to prospective management of trophoblastic diseases. Clin Obstet Gynecol 38: 294Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saida A, Maruo T, Ashitaka Y, Tojo S (1982) Clinical features of invasive hydatidiform mole and its treatment. Prog Obstet Gynecol 34: 27Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tomoda Y, Kaseki S, Goto S, Ishizuka T, Mano H (1986) Approach for attaining complete cure of trophoblastic disease. In: Ichinoe K (ed) Trophoblastic diseases. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, p 111Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hertz R (1978) Choriocarcinoma and related gestational trophoblastic tumors in women. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maruo T, Tojo S, Harada A, Ashitaka Y (1981) Clinical features of choriocarcinoma and its treatment. J Jpn Soc Cancer Ther 16: 704Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yen S, McMahon B (1968) Epidermiologic features of trophoblastic disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 101: 126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoshina M, Boothby M, Boime I (1982) Cytological localization of chorionic gonadotropin and placental lactogen mRNAs during development of the human placenta. J Cell Biol 93: 190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hoshina M, Hussa R, Pattillo R, Boime I (1983) Cytological distribution, of chorionic gonadotropin subunit and placental lactogen mRNAs in neoplasma derived from human placenta. J Cell Biol 97: 1200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mochizuki M, Maruo T, Hoshina M, Nishimura R (1986) Choriocarcinoma and placental protein hormones. In: Ichinoe K (ed) Trophoblastic diseases. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, p 93Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maruo T, Matsuo H, Otani T, Hoshina M, Mochizuki M (1986) Differential modulation of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) subunit messenger ribonucleic acid levels and CG secretion by progesterone in normal placenta and choriocarcinoma cultured in vitro. Endocrinology 119: 855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mochizuki M (1988) Biology of trophoblast and placental protein hormones. In: Mochizuki M (ed) Placental protein hormones. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 3Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nishimura R, Endo Y, Tanabe K, Ashitaka Y, Tojo S (1981) The biochemical properties of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin from the patients with trophoblastic diseases. J Endocrinol Invest 4: 349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mizuochi T, Nishimura R, Derapee C, Taniguchi T, Hamamoto T, Mochizuki M, Kobata A (1983) Structure of the asparagine-linked sugar chains of human chorionic gonadotropin produced in choriocarcinoma. J Biol Chem 258: 14126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Takeuchi Y, Matsuura S, Nishimura R, Mochizuki M (1984) Clinical application of an antibody produced against asialylated hCG in the biochemical diagnosis of choriocarcinoma. Folia Endocrinol 60: 1046Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Maruo
  • M. Mochizuki

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations