Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Materials

  • P. N. Prasad
Part of the Springer Series on Wave Phenomena book series (SSWAV, volume 9)


The physics of nonlinear optical processes in organic materials relates to the molecular nature of these systems and their unique chemical bonding. In this article, these concepts are discussed at both the microscopic and bulk levels. Experimental methods of studies of optical nonlinearities are described. Ultrafast techniques to measure dynamics of resonant third-order nonlinear optical response are discussed along with contributions from various photoexcitation processes in organic materials. Organic systems also exhibit a large variety of carriers which can be either photoexcited or produced by doping. The role of these carriers in relation to optical nonlinearity is examined. In regard to device processes, nonlinear optical processes in an optical waveguide and optical bistability in a Fabry-Perot etalon are discussed. To conclude, a discussion of current status, future directions of research and exciting research opportunities in this new multidisciplinary field of nonlinear optical effects in organic materials is presented.


Harmonic Generation Optical Bistability Induce Dipole Moment Nonlinear Optical Effect Nonlinear Optical Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B. Clymer and S. A. Collins, Jr., Opt. Eng. 24, 74 (1985).ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. I. Stegeman, Thin Solid Films 152, 231 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    “Nonlinear Optical and Electroactive Polymers” Eds. P. N. Prasad and D. R. Ulrich, Plenum Press (New York, 1988).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    “Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors” Ed. H. Huag, Academic Press (London, 1988).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. R. Shen “The Principles of Nonlinear Optics” Wiley & Sons (New York, 1984 ).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Chopra, L. Carlacci, H. F. King and P. N. Prasad, J. Phys. Chem. (in Press).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. J. B. Hurst, M. Dupuis and F. Clementi, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 385 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Dupuis, J. Rys and H. F. King, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 111 (1976). M. Dupuis, J. D. Watts, H. O. Villar and B. J. Hurst, Hondo (7.0) available from QCPE, Indiana University.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Sekino and R. J. Bartlett, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 976 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Zyss and D. S. Chemla in “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals” Eds. D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, Academic Press (New York, 1987 ) p. 23.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong and 0. Zamani-Khamiri in reference 4, p. 13.Google Scholar
  12. D. J. Williams, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 23, 690 (1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad and F. E. Karasz, Polymer 29, 1940 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. R. Meredith, J. Chem. Phys. 77, 5863 (1982); G. R. Meredith and B. Buchalter, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1938 (1983).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. Perrin, P. N. Prasad and M. Dupuis, to be published.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 68, 905 (1955).ADSCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Samoc, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, C. Willand, and D. J. Williams, submitted to J. Phys. Chem.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    “Electromagnetic Surface Excitations” Eds. R. F. Wallis and G. I. Stegeman, Springer-Verlag (Berlin, 1986).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    X. Huang, R. Burzynski and P. N. Prasad, Langmuir 5, 325 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. M. Carpenter, P. N. Prasad and A. C. Griffin, Thin Solid Films 161, 315 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. H. Cross, I. R. Peterson, I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, M. J. Goodwin, N. Carr, R. S. Sethi, R. Marsden, G. W. Gray, D. Lacey, A. M. McRoberts, R. M. Scrowston, and K. J. Toyne, Thin Solid Films 156, 39 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. J. Eichler, P. Günter and D. W. Pohl, “Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings” Springer (Berlin, 1986 ).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Kajzar in “Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers” Eds. J. Messier, F. Kajzar, P. Prasad and D. Ulrich, NATO ASI Series, Vol. 162, Kluwer Academic Publishers (The Netherlands, 1989 ) p. 225.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. T. Zhao, B. P. Singh and P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5535 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. T. Zhao, M. Samoc, B. P. Singh and P. N. Prasad, J. Phys. Chem. (in Press).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. N. Prasad, J. Swiatkiewicz, and J. Pfleger, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 160, 53 (1988).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Z. Z. Ho and N. Peyghambarian, Chem. Phys. Lett. 148, 107 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. K. Ghoshal, P. Chopra, B. P. Singh, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 90, 5078 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Samoc and P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. (in Press).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    “Handbook of Conducting Polymers” Vols. 1 and 2, Ed. T. Skotheim, Marcel-Dekker (1987).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    P. Logsdon, J. Pfleger and P. N. Prasad, Synthetic Metals 26, 369 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. P. de Melo and R. Silbey, Chem. Phys. Lett. 140, 537 (1987).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quant. Electr., QE18, 1580 (1982).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Lattes, H. A. Ildns, F. J. Leonberger and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electr. QE19, 1718 (1983).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Wabnitz, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 838 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Trillo and S. Wabnitz, Tech. Dig. CLEO 1987, Washington:OSA (1987) paper THK30, p. 260.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. I. Thacara, G. F. Lipscomb, R. S. Lytel and A. J. Tickonor in “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers” Eds. A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein and D. R. Ulrich, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 109, 19 (1988).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. DeMartino, D. Haas, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, H. T. Man, J. Riggs, M. Sansone, J. Stamatoff, C. Teng and H. Yoon in “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymers” Eds. A. J. Heeger, J. Orenstein and D. R. Ulrich, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 109, 65 (1988).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011 (1988).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, W. M. Hetherington III and H. G. Winful, in Springer Scr. Opt. Sci., Vol. 48 (Integr. Optics), p. 179, (1985).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. I. Stegeman, IEEE J. Quantum Electr. QE18, 1610 (1982).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. M. Gibbs “Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light” Academic Press (New York, 1985 ).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Assanto, R. M. Fortenberg, C. T. Seaton and G. I. Stegeman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B5, 432 (1988).ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. N. Prasad
    • 1
  1. 1.Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of ChemistryState University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations