Conifer Somatic Embryogenesis and Clonal Forestry

  • M. R. Becwar


Somatic embryogenesis, the formation and development of embryos from somatic (vegetative) tissues under in vitro conditions, was first demonstrated with carrot (Steward et al. 1958). The list of plants that can be regenerated by somatic embryogenesis continues to grow (Tisserat et al. 1979; Ammirato 1983; see references in this chapter). In fact, somatic embryogenesis has been demonstrated in essentially all major groups of higher plants, angiosperms (monocots and dicots) and gymnosperms (coniferous and nonconiferous).


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Zygotic Embryo Immature Embryo Embryogenic Culture 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Becwar
    • 1
  1. 1.Westvaco CorporationForest Science LaboratorySummervilleUSA

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