The Intermediate Field Between Pure and Applied Magnetism. Importance of Accurate Measurements of Magnetization Curves
Around 1945, most of the researchers who were concerned with magnetism, including magnetic physics and the development of magnetic materials such as iron core or permanent magnets, studied the alloys of the ferromagnetic 3d transition metals Fe, Co, Ni, and elements near them in the periodic table such as Cr, Mn, Cu or the cheaper Si and Al. At that time, they investigated the initial susceptibility µ 0, maximum susceptibility µ m, the behavior of magnetization within a region of rotation and the shape of hysteresis loops (squareness, hysteresis loss). These parameters were obtained from the magnetization curves measured by a ballistic current method or by an abstraction method. They also studied dc behavior such as the magnetoresistance or magnetostriction which accompanies magnetization. Physicists studied the mechanism of the magnetization process or the origin of magnetism and metallurgists developed practical magnetic materials using metallurgical methods. On the other hand, electronic engineers worked so independently of physicists or metallurgists that they even used different terms such as “permeability” and “coercivity” instead of “susceptibility” and “coercive force”, and they were interested in magnetic properties in alternating fields. Although there were very clear boundaries between the two groups, an “intermediate field” did not seem to exist.
KeywordsPermanent Magnet Saturation Magnetization Magnetic Anisotropy Magnetization Curve Spin Glass
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