Exotic Terranes in the Central-Southern Appalachian Orogen and Correlations With West Africa

  • R. D. Dallmeyer
Part of the IGCP-Project 233 book series (IGCP 233)

Abstract

Central and southern segments of the Appalachian orogen have long been subdivided into several northeast-trending lithotectonic “belts” (Fig. 1) on the basis of contrasts in lithologic character, metamorphic grade, and/or structural style (e.g. King 1955; Hatcher 1972,1978b, 1987; Rankin 1975; Glover et al. 1983). The nomenclature and regional configuration of these belts as well as the character of intervening boundaries has changed markedly over the last 30 years (e.g. King 1955; Overstreet and Bell 1965a, b; Hatcher 1972, 1978b, 1987; Butler 1980). Such subdivision of the orogen has become increasingly more difficult to reconcile with results of recent detailed geologic mapping where, for example, protolith sequences within a low-grade belt may be traced directly into an adjacent high-grade belt (e. g. Overstreet and Bell 1965b; Griffin 1972; Secor et al. 1986a). In addition, contrasting times of regional metamorphism have been documented within different areas of the same belt (e. g. Dallmeyer et al. 1986; Noel et al. 1988). These and other similarly contradictory relationships have led to the suggestion by some workers (e. g. Zen 1981; Williams and Hatcher 1982, 1983; Secor et al. 1986b; Higgins et al. 1986, 1988; Noel et al. 1988; Dallmeyer 1986, 1989a; Horton et al. 1989, 1991) that the central-southern Appalachian orogen is comprised of several markedly different, fault-bounded structural units (Fig. 2) with tectonic significance similar to that of tectonostratigraphic terranes defined within Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogens of the Circum-Pacific realm (e.g. Coney et al. 1980; Jones et al. 1983a, b; Howell and Jones 1984).

Keywords

Shale Cretaceous Breccia Siltstone Serpentine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen PM (1967) The geology of part of an orogenic belt in Sierra Leone. Ph D Thesis, Univ Leeds, UK, 313 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen PM (1969) Geology of part of an orogenic belt in western Sierra Leone. Geol Rundsch 58: 588–619Google Scholar
  3. Allen PM, Snelling NJ, Rex D (1967) Age determinations in western Sierra Leone. In: Variations in isotopic abundance of strontium, calcium and argon and related topics. Mass Inst Technol 1381-15, Rept US Atomic Energy Com, pp 17–22Google Scholar
  4. Andress NE, Cramer FH, Goldstein RF (1969) Ordovician chitizoans from Florida well samples. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 19: 369–375Google Scholar
  5. Applin PL (1951) Preliminary report on buried pre-Mesozoic rocks in Florida and adjacent states. US Geol Surv Circ 91 : 28Google Scholar
  6. Arden DD Jr (1974) Geology of the Suwannee basin interpreted from geophysical profiles. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions 24: 223–230Google Scholar
  7. Atkins RL, Higgins MW, Gottfried D (1980) Geochemical data bearing on the origin of the Stone Mountain granite, Panola granite, and Lithonia Gneiss near Atlanta Georgia. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 12 (4): 170Google Scholar
  8. Barnett RS (1975) Basement structure of Florida and its tectonic implications. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 25 : 122–142Google Scholar
  9. Barton C, Brown L (1983) Paleomagnetism of Carboniferous intrusions in North Carolina. J Geophys Res 88: 2327–2335Google Scholar
  10. Bass MN (1969) Petrography and ages of crystalline of basement rocks of Florida — some extrapolations. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 11: 283–310Google Scholar
  11. Bassot JP, Caen-Vachette M (1983) Données nouvelles sur l’âge du massif de granitoîde du Niokolo-Koba (Sénégal oriental); implication sur l’âge du stade précoce do la chaîne des Mauritanides : J Afr Earth Sci 1: 159’165Google Scholar
  12. Beckinsale RD, Pankhurst RJ, Snelling NJ (1981) The geoch-ronology of Sierra Leone (Appendix). Overseas Mem Inst Geol Soc Lond 7: 16 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell H III, Butler JR, Howell DE, Wheeler WH (1974) Geology of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain near Pageland, South Carolina and Wadesboro, North Carolina. Columbia, S C Geol Surv Carol Geol Soc Guidebook 1974, 23 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Bessoles B (1977) Géologie de l’Afrique, I. Le craton Ouest africain. Mém Bur Rech Géol Min Paris 88: 402Google Scholar
  15. Bourland WC, Rigby JK (1982) Sponge spicules from early Paleozoic rocks of the Carolina slate belt. In: Bearce DN, Black WW, Kish SA, Tull JF (eds) Tectonic studies in the Talladega and Carolina slate belts, southern Appalachian orogen. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 191: 125–132Google Scholar
  16. Brown PM, Van der Voo R (1983) A paleomagnetic study of Piedmont metamorphic rocks from northern Delaware. Geol Soc Am Bull 94: 815–822Google Scholar
  17. Buffler RT, Schlager W (1984) Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, V. LXXVII, US Gov printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. Butler JR (1977) Generalized map of the Spartanburg quadrangle, SC and NC. In: Heffner JD, Ferguson RB (eds) Savannah river laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance; preliminary raw data release, Spartanburg 1° × 2° NTMS area, North Carolina and South Carolina, National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Aiken, S C Savannah River Lab, p c-28Google Scholar
  19. Butler JR (1980) Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont province of North Carolina. Aiken, S C du Pont de Nemours & Co, DP-1562; 47Google Scholar
  20. Butler JR, Fullagar PD (1975) Lilesville and Pageland plut-ons and associated metarhyolites, eastern Carolina slate belt: Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 7: 475Google Scholar
  21. Butler JR, Fullagar PD (1978) Petrochemical and geochrono-logical studies of plutonic rocks in the southern Appalachians: III. Leucocratic adamellites of the Charlotte belt near Salisbury, North Carolina. Geol Soc Am Bull 89: 460–466Google Scholar
  22. Butler JR, Howell DE (1976) Geology of the Taxahaw quadrangle, Lancaster County, South Carolina. Columbia, S C Geol Surv Geol Notes 20: 133–149Google Scholar
  23. Cagle JW, Khan MA (1983) Smackover-Norphlet stratigraphy south Wiggins Arch, Mississippi and Alabama. Trans Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc 33: 23–29Google Scholar
  24. Campbell RB (1939) Paleozoic under Florida? Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 23 : 1712–1713Google Scholar
  25. Carpenter RH, Odom AL, Hartley ME III (1982) Geochron-ological investigation of the Lincolnton metadacite, Georgia and South Carolina. In: Bearce DN; Black WW, Kish SA, Tull JF (eds) Tectonic studies in the Talladega and Carolina slate belts, southern Appalachian orogen. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 191: 145–152Google Scholar
  26. Carroll D (1963) Petrography of some sandstones and shales of Paleozoic age from borings in Florida. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 454A: 15Google Scholar
  27. Chowns TM (1989) Record of Paleozoic tectonism in the Valley and Ridge province of Georgia and Alabama. In: Dallmeyer RD (ed) Tectonostratigraphic expression of terrane accretion in the circum-Atlantik, Paleozoic orogens. Progr Abstr 4, IGCP Proj 233, Athens, Georgia, p 17Google Scholar
  28. Chowns TM, Williams CT (1983) Pre-Cretaceous rocks beneath the Georgia Coastal Plain-regional implications. In: Gohn GS (ed) Studies related to the Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake of 1886-tectonics and seismicity. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1313: L1–L41Google Scholar
  29. Cloud P, Glaessner MF (1982) The Ediacarian Period and System: Metazoa inherit the Earth. Science 218: 783–792Google Scholar
  30. Coney PJ, Jones DL, Monger JWH (1980) Cordilleran suspect terranes. Nature (Lond) 288: 329–333Google Scholar
  31. Cook FA, Oliver JE (1981) The late Precambrian-early Paleozoic continental edge in the Appalachian orogen. Am J Sci 281:993–1008Google Scholar
  32. Cook FA, Albaugh DS, Brown LD, Kaufman S, Oliver JE; Hatcher RD Jr (1979) Thin-skinned tectonics in the crystalline southern Appalachians; COCORP seismic-reflection profiling of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont. Geology 7: 563–567Google Scholar
  33. Cramer FH (1971) Position of the north Florida lower Paleozoic block in Silurian time — Phytoplankton evidence. J Geophys Res 76: 4754–4757Google Scholar
  34. Cramer FH (1973) Middle and upper Silurian chitinozoan succession in Florida subsurface. J Paleontol 47: 279–288Google Scholar
  35. Dainty AM, Frazier JE (1984) Bouguer gravity in northeastern Georgia: A buried suture, a surface suture, and granites. Geol Soc Am Bull 95: 1168–1175Google Scholar
  36. Dallmeyer RD (1978) 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release ages of hornblende and biotite across the Georgia inner Piedmont: their bearing on late Paleozoic — early Mesozoic tectono-thermal history. Am J Sci 278: 124–149Google Scholar
  37. Dallmeyer RD (1984) 40Ar/39Ar ages from a pre-Mesozoic crystalline basement penetrated at Holes 537 and 538 A of the Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 77, southeastern Gulf of Mexica: Tectonic implications. In: Buffler RT, Schlager W (eds) Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Washington DC LXXVII: 496–504Google Scholar
  38. Dallmeyer RD (1986) Polyphase terrane accretion in the southern Appalachians. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 18 (6): 579Google Scholar
  39. Dallmeyer RD (1987) 40Ar/39Ar age of detrital muscovite within Lower Ordovician sandstone in the Coastal Plain basement of Florida: Implications for West African terrane linkages. Geology 15: 998–1001Google Scholar
  40. Dallmeyer RD (1988) Late Paleozoic tectonothermal evolution of the western Piedmont and eastern Blue Ridge, Georgia : Controls on the chronology of terrane accretion and transport in the southern Appalachian orogen. Geol Soc Am Bull 100:702–713Google Scholar
  41. Dallmeyer RD (1989 a) Contrasting accreted terranes in the southern Appalachian orogen and Atlantic-Gulf Coastal Plains and their correlations with West African sequences. In : Dallmeyer RD (ed) Terranes in the Circum-Atlantic paleozoic orogens. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 230: 247–267Google Scholar
  42. Dallmeyer RD (1989 b) A tectonic linkage between the Roke-lide orogen (Sierra Leone) and the St. Lucie metamorphic complex in the Florida subsurface. J Geol 89: 183–195Google Scholar
  43. Dallmeyer RD (1989 c) 40Ar/39Ar ages from subsurface crystalline basement of the Wiggins uplift and southwestern-most Appalachian Piedmont: Implications for late Paleozoic terrane accretion during assembly of Pangea. Am J Sci 289: 812–828Google Scholar
  44. Dallmeyer RD, Lécorché JP (1990) 40Ar/39Ar polyorogenic mineral age record within the northern Mauritanide orogen, West Africa. Tectonophysics 177: 81–107Google Scholar
  45. Dallmeyer RD, Villeneuve M (1987) 40Ar/39Ar mineral age record of polyphase tectonothermal evolution in the southern Mauritanide orogen, southeastern Senegal. Geol Soc Am Bull 98: 602–611Google Scholar
  46. Dallmeyer RD, Hess JR, Whitney JA (1981) Post-magmatic cooling of the Elberton Granite: bearing on the late Paleozoic tectonothermal history of the Georgia Inner Piedmont. J Geol 89: 585–600Google Scholar
  47. Dallmeyer RD, Wright JE, Secor DT, Snoke AW (1986) Character of the Alleghanian orogeny in the southern Appalachians: Part II. Geochronological constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the eastern Piedmont in South Carolina. Bull Geol Soc Am 97: 1329–1344Google Scholar
  48. Dallmeyer RD, Caen-Vachette M, Villeneuve M (1987) Emplacement age of post-tectonic granites in southern Guinea (West Africa) and the peninsular Florida subsurface: implications for origins of southern Appalachian exotic ter-ranes. Geol Soc Am Bull 99: 87–93Google Scholar
  49. Dennison RE, Raveling HP, Rouse JT (1967) Age and descriptions of subsurface basement rocks, Pamlico and Albemarle Sound area, North Carolina. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 51: 268–272Google Scholar
  50. Dooley RE (1983) Paleomagnetism of some mafic intrusions in the South Carolina Piedmont. I. Magnetic systems with single characteristic directions. Phys Earth Planet Interiors 31:241–268Google Scholar
  51. Ellwood BB (1982) Paleomagnetic evidence for the continuity and independent movement of a distinct major crustal block in the southern Appalachians. J Geophys Res 87: 5339–5350Google Scholar
  52. Farrar SS (1984) The Goochland terrane: remobilized Gren-ville basement in the eastern Virginia Piedmont. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 194: 215–227Google Scholar
  53. Farrar SS (1985) Tectonic evolution of the easternmost Piedmont, North Carolina. Geol Soc Am Bull 96: 362–380Google Scholar
  54. Foland KA, Muessig KW (1978) A Paleozoic age for some charnockitic-anorthositic rocks. Geology 6 (3): 143–146Google Scholar
  55. Fullagar PD (1981) Summary of Rb-Sr whole rock ages for South Carolina, Columbia. S C Geol Surv S C Geol 25: 29–32Google Scholar
  56. Fullagar PD, Butler JR (1979) 325 to 265 m.y.-old granitic plutons in the Piedmont of the Southern Appalachians. Am J Sci 279: 161–185Google Scholar
  57. Fullagar PD, Hatcher RD Jr, Merschat CE (1979) 1200 m. y.-old gneisses in the Blue Ridge province of North and South Carolina. S E Geol 20: 69–77Google Scholar
  58. Gates AE, Simpson C, Glover L III (1986) Appalachian Carboniferous dextral strike-slip faults: An example from Brookneal, Virgina. Tectonics 5: 119–133Google Scholar
  59. Gibson GG, Teeter SA (1984) A stratigrapher’s view of the Carolina slate belt, southcentral North Carolina. Charlotte, Dep Geogr Earth Sci, Univ N C Charlotte, 43 ppGoogle Scholar
  60. Gibson GG, Teeter SA, Fedonkin MA (1984) Ediacarian fossils from the Carolina slate belt, Stanley County, North Carolina. Geology 12: 387–390Google Scholar
  61. Glover L III, Sinha AK (1973) The Virginina deformation, A late Precambrian to Early Cambrian (?) orogenic event in the central Piedmont of Virginia and North Carolina. Am J Sci 273-A: 234–251Google Scholar
  62. Glover L III, Sinha AK, Higgins MW, Kirk WS (1971) U-Pb dating of Carolina slate belt and Charlotte belt rocks, Vir-gilina district, Virginia and North Carolina. Geol Soc Am Prog Abstr 3:313Google Scholar
  63. Glover L III, Mose DG, Poland FB, Bobyarchick AR, Bourland WC (1978) Grenville basement in the eastern Piedmont of Virginia: implications for orogenic models. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 10: 169Google Scholar
  64. Glover L III, Mose DG, Costain JK, Poland FB, Reilly JM (1982) Grenville basement in the Eastern Piedmont of Virgina: a progress report. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 14: 20Google Scholar
  65. Glover L III, Speer JA, Russell GS, Farrar SS (1983) Ages of regional metamorphism and ductile deformation in the central and southern Appalachians. Lithos 16: 223–245Google Scholar
  66. Goldstein RF, Cramer FH, Andress NE (1969) Silurian chitinozoans from Florida well samples. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 19: 377–384Google Scholar
  67. Griffin VS Jr (1971) Inner Piedmont belt of the southern crystalline Appalachians. Geol Soc Am Bull 82: 1885–1898Google Scholar
  68. Griffin VS Jr (1972) Inner Piedmont belt of the southern crystalline appalachians : Reply. Geol Soc Am Bull 83: 1897–1900Google Scholar
  69. Griffin VS Jr (1974) Analysis of the Piedmont in northwest South Carolina: Geol Soc Am Bull 85: 1123–1138Google Scholar
  70. Griffin VS Jr (1975) Geology of the Seneca, Westminster, and portions of the Avalon and Oakway Quadrangles, S. C. S C State Dev Board, Div Geol, Geol Notes, 18: 13–23Google Scholar
  71. Griffin V Jr (1977) Preliminary geologic map of the South Carolina Inner Piedmont Belt. S C State Dev Board Div Geol, Geol Notes 21 (4): 198–204Google Scholar
  72. Halik RS (1983) Characterization of the Charlotte/Carolina slate belt boundary in the Silverstreet and Denny quadrangles, South Carolina: A stratigraphic, structural and metamorphic study. M. S. Thesis, Columbia, University S C, 83 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. Hanley TB (1986) Petrography and structural geology of Uchee Belt rocks in Columbus, Georgia, and Phénix City, Alabama. In : Neathery TL (ed) Centinnial Field Guide Volume 6, Southeastern Section of the Geological Society of America. Boulder, Colorado, Geol Soc Am, pp 297–300Google Scholar
  74. Harris CW, Glover L III (1985) The Virgilina deformation: Implications of stratigraphic correlation in the Carolina Slate Belt. Charlotteville, Virginia Div Miner Resour, Carol Geol Soc Field Trip Guidebook 1985, 58 ppGoogle Scholar
  75. Harris LD, Harris AG, de Witt Wallace Jr (1981) Evaluation of the southeastern overthrust belt beneath the Blue Ridge-Piedmont thrust. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 65 (12): 9Google Scholar
  76. Hatcher RD, Jr (1971) The geology of Rabun and Habersham Counties, Georgia. Georgia Geol Surv Bull 83: 48Google Scholar
  77. Hatcher RD, Jr (1972) Developmental model for the southern Appalachians. Geol Soc Am Bull 83: 2735–2760Google Scholar
  78. Hatcher RD, Jr (1976) Introduction to the geology of the eastern Blue Ridge of the Carolinas and nearby Georgia. Carol Geol Soc Guidebook, 53 ppGoogle Scholar
  79. Hatcher RD, Jr (1978 a) The Alto allochthon: A major tectonic feature of the Piedmont of northeast Georgia. Georgia Geol Surv Bull 93: 83–86Google Scholar
  80. Hatcher RD Jr (1978 b) Tectonics of the western Piedmont and Blue Ridge, southern Appalachians : Review and speculations. Am J Sci 278: 276–304Google Scholar
  81. Hatcher RD Jr (1987) Tectonics of the southern and central Appalachian internides. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 15: 337–362Google Scholar
  82. Hatcher RD Jr, Odom AL (1980) Timing of thrusting in the southern Appalachians, U.S.A.: Model for orogeny?. Q J Geol Soc Lond 137: 321–327Google Scholar
  83. Hatcher RD Jr, Zietz I (1978) Thin crystalline thrust sheets in the Southern Appalachian Inner Piedmont and Blue Ridge: Interpretation based upon regional aeromagnetic data. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 70: 417Google Scholar
  84. Hatcher RD Jr, Zietz I (1980) Tectonic implications of regional aeromagnetic and gravity data from the southern Appalachians. In: Wones DR (ed) Proc Caledonides USA, Blacksburg, Dep Geol Sci, Virginia Polytectonic Inst State Univ Mem 2: 235–244Google Scholar
  85. Hedge CE, Marvin RF, Naser CW (1975) Age provinces in the basement rocks of Liberia. J Res, US Geol Surv 3: 425–429Google Scholar
  86. Henika WS (1977) Geology of the Blairs, Mount Hermon, Danville and Ringgold quadrangles, Virginia, with section on the Triassic system by P. A. Thayer. Virginia Div Miner Resour Publ 2:45Google Scholar
  87. Higgins MW, Zietz I (1983) Geologic interpretation of geophysical maps of the pre-Cretaceous “basement” beneath the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Geol Soc Am Mem 158: 125–130Google Scholar
  88. Higgins MW, Atkins RL, Dooley RE (1980) Structure and stratigraphy of the Atlanta area, Georgia. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 12: 180Google Scholar
  89. Higgins MW, Atkins RL, Crawford TJ, Crawford RF, Brooks R, Cook RB (1986) The structure, stratigraphy, tec-tonostratigraphy, and evolution of the southernmost part of the Appalachian orogen, Georgia and Alabama. US Geol Surv Open-File Rep 86-372: 162Google Scholar
  90. Higgins MW, Atkins RL, Crawford TJ, Crawford RF, Brooks R, Cook RB (1988) The structure, stratigraphy, tec-tonostratigraphy, and evolution of the southernmost part of the Appalachian orogen. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1475: 173Google Scholar
  91. Hopson JL (1984) Stratigraphy and structure of the Alto allochthon, Ayersville Quadrangle, Georgia. Ms Thesis, Univ S C, 151 pp(unpubl)Google Scholar
  92. Hopson JL (1988) Petrogenesis of the Lake Burton mafic-ul-tra-mafic complex (abs.). Geol Soc Am Progr Abst 20 (4): 271Google Scholar
  93. Hopson JL, Hatcher RD Jr (1988) Tectonothermal evolution of the Alto allochthon of the Southern Appalachian orogen. Bull Geol Soc Am 100: 339–350Google Scholar
  94. Horton JW (1984) Stratigraphie nomenclature in the Kings Mountain belt, North Carolina and South Carolina. In: Stratigraphie Notes, 1983: US Geol Surv Bull 1537-A: A59–A67Google Scholar
  95. Horton JW, Drake AA (1986) Tectonostratigraphic terranes and their boundaries in the central and southern Appalachians. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 18 (6): 640Google Scholar
  96. Horton JW, Drake AA, Rankin DW (1989) Tectonostratigraphic terranes and their Paleozoic boundaries in the central and southern Appalachians. In: Dallmeyer RD (ed) Ter-ranes In The Circum-Atlantic Paleozoic Orogens. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 230: 213–246Google Scholar
  97. Horton JW, Rankin DW, Drake AA, Dallmeyer RD (1991) Preliminary tectonostratigraphic terrane map of the central and southern Appalachians (1:2,000,000) U. S. Geological survey, Miscellaneous Investigation Series, Map I2163Google Scholar
  98. Howell DG, Jones DL (1984) Tectonostratigraphic terrane analysis and some terrane vernacular. In: Howell DG, Jones DL, Cox A, Nur A (eds) Proc Circum-Pacific Terrane Conf Stanford Univ Publ Geol Sci 18: 6–9Google Scholar
  99. Howell DG, Jones DL, Schermer ER (1985) Tectonostratigraphic terranes in the circum-Pacific region. In: Howell DG (ed) Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the Circum-Pacific region. Circum-Pacific Counc Energy Miner Resour, Houston, Earth Sci Ser 1: 3–30Google Scholar
  100. Hurley PM, Leo GW, White RW, Fairbairn HW (1971) Libe-rian Age province (about 2700 Ma) and adjacent provinces in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Geol Soc Am Bull 82: 1004–1005Google Scholar
  101. Jones DL, Howell DG, Coney PJ, Monger JWH (1983 a) Recognition, character, and analysis of tectonostratigraphic terranes in western North America. In: Hashimoto M, Uyeda S (eds) Advances in earth and planetary sciences. Terra Sci, Tokyo, pp 31–35Google Scholar
  102. Jones DL, Howell DG, Coney PJ, Monger JWH (1983b) Recognition, character, and analysis of tectonostratigraphic terranes in western North America. J Geol Educ 31: 295–303Google Scholar
  103. King PB (1955) A geologic section across the southern Appalachians: An outline of the geology in the segment in Tennessee, North Carolina and South Carolina. In: Russell RJ (ed) Guides to southeastern geology. Geol Soc Am, pp 332–373Google Scholar
  104. Kirk PD (1985) Geology of the southern half of the Prosperity 7½ quadrangle and the northern half of the Delmar 7½′ quadrangle, South Carolina. MS thesis, Univ S C Columbia, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  105. Kish SA (1983) A geochronological study of deformation and metamorphism in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont of the Carolinas. PhD dissert, Chapel Hill, Univ N C, 220 ppGoogle Scholar
  106. Kish SA, Campbell SK (1986) A middle Paleozoic plutonic terrane in the eastern Piedmont of North Carolina. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 18 (6): 658Google Scholar
  107. Kish SA, Butler JR, Fullagar PD (1979) The timing of metamorphism and deformation in the central and eastern Piedmont of North Carolina. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 11 : 184–185Google Scholar
  108. Klitgord KD, Popenoe P (1984) Florida: A Jurassic transform plate boundary. J Geophys Res 89: 7753–7772Google Scholar
  109. Klitgord KD, Schouten H (1981) Mesozoic evolution of the Atlantic Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. In: Pilger RH (ed) The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean. Proc Symp Feb 1981, Houston Geol Soc, Houston, pp 100–101Google Scholar
  110. Klitgord KD, Dillon WP, Popenoe P (1983) Mesozoic tectonics of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain and continental margin. In: Gohn GS (ed) Studies related to the Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake of 1886 — tectonics and Seismicity. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1313: P1–P15Google Scholar
  111. Klitgord KD, Popenoe P, Schouten H (1984) Florida: a Jurassic transform plate boundary. J Geophy Res 89: 7753–7772Google Scholar
  112. Lécorché JP, Roussel J, Sougy J, Guetat Z (1983) An interpretation of the geology of the Mauritanides orogenic belt (West Africa) in the light of geophysical data. In : Hatcher RD, Williams H, Zietz I (eds) Contributions To The Tectonics And Geophysics Of Mountain Chains. Geol Soc Am Mem 158: 131–147Google Scholar
  113. Lefort JP (1980) Un “fit” structural de l’Atlantique Nord: arguments géologiques pour correler les marqueurs geophysiques reconnus sur les marges. Mar Geol 37: 355–369Google Scholar
  114. Lille R (1967) Etude géologique du Guidimakha (Mauritanie). Essai de résolution structurale d’une série épimetamor-phique. Mém Bur Rech Géol Min Paris, Fr, 55: 397Google Scholar
  115. Lille R (1969) Précambrien et Cambro-Ordovician du Guidi-maka (Mauritanie orientale). Bull Soc Géol Fr 7, XI, 2: 257–267Google Scholar
  116. Mauger RL, Spruill RK, Christopher MT, Shafiquallah M (1983) Petrology and geochemistry of peralkalic metagran-ite and metarhyolite dikes, Fountain quarry, Pitt County, North Carolina. S E Geol 24 (2): 67–89Google Scholar
  117. McConnell KI, Glover L III (1982) Emplacement of the Flat River complex, an Eocambrian sub-volcanic pluton near Durham, North Carolina. In- Bearce DN, Black WW, Kish SA, Tull JF (eds) Tectonic studies in the Talladega and Carolina slate belts, southern Appalachian orogen. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 191: 133–143Google Scholar
  118. Milton C, Hurst VJ (1965) Subsurface “basement” rocks of Georgia. Georgia Geol Surv Bull 76: 56Google Scholar
  119. Mose DG, Nagel MS (1982) Plutonic events in the Piedmont of Virginia. S E Geol 23: 25–39Google Scholar
  120. Mueller PA, Porch JW (1983) Tectonic implications of Paleozoic and Mesozoic igneous rocks in the subsurface of Peninsular Florida. Trans Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc 33: 169–173Google Scholar
  121. Neathery TL, Thomas WA (1975) Pre-Mesozoic basement rocks of the Alabama Coastal Plain. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 25: 86–99Google Scholar
  122. Nelson AE (1989) Structure and tectonostratigraphy of the western and eastern Blue Ridge allochthonous complexes, Georgia. In : Dallmeyer RD (ed) Tectonostratigraphic expression of terrane accretion in the southern Appalachian orogen: a geotraverse excursion. IGCP Project 233 Guidebook Series, University of Georgia, Athens 4: 7-1-7-21Google Scholar
  123. Nelson AE, Gillon KA (1985) Stratigraphic nomenclature in the Richard Russell and Helen thrust sheets, North Georgia. In: Contributions to Stratigraphy, stratigraphic notes, 1984. US Geol Surv Bull 1605-A: A59–A62Google Scholar
  124. Nelson AE, Horton JW Jr, Clarke JW (1985 c) Stacked thrust sheets of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces, northeast Georgia and western South Carolina. Geol Soc Am Progr Abst 17(7):674Google Scholar
  125. Nelson AE, Horton JW Jr, Clarke JW (1987 a) Generalized tectonic map of the Greenville 1° by 2° quadrangle, Georgia, South Coralina and North Carolina. US Geol Surv, Map MF-1898, 1:250000Google Scholar
  126. Nelson AE, Horton JW Jr, Clarke JW (1987 b) Tectonic map showing distribution of thrust sheets in the Greenville two-degree quadrangle, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. US Geol Surv Misc Field Stud Map 1898, scale 1:250000Google Scholar
  127. Nelson KD, Arnow JA, McBride JH et al. (1985 a) New CO-CORP profiling in the southeastern United States. Part I. Late Paleozoic suture and Mesozoic rift system. Geology 13:714–718Google Scholar
  128. Nelson KD, McBride JH, Arnow JA, Oliver JE, Brown LD, Kaufman S (1985 b) New COCORP profiling in the southeastern United States. Part II. Brunswick and east coast magnetic anomalies, opening of the north-central Atlantic Ocean. Geology 13: 718–721Google Scholar
  129. Noel JR, Spariosu DJ, Dallmeyer RD (1988) Paleomagnetism and 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Carolina Slate Belt, Albemarle, N.C.: Implications for terrane history. Geology 16: 64–68Google Scholar
  130. Nystrom PG (1972) Geology of the Catarrh NW quadrangle, South Carolina. Univ S Carol Masters thesis, Columbia, 49 ppGoogle Scholar
  131. Odom AL, Fullagar PD (1973) Geochronologic and tectonic relationships between the Inner Piedmont, Brevard zone, and Blue Ridge belts, North Carolina. Am J Sci 273-A: 133–149Google Scholar
  132. Odom AL, Russell GS (1975) The time of regional metamorphism of the Inner Piedmont and Smith River allochthon : inferences from whole rock ages. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 7 (4): 522–523Google Scholar
  133. Odom AL, Russell GS, Russell CW (1976) Distribution and age of Precambrian basement in the southern Appalachians. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 8: 238Google Scholar
  134. Opdyke ND, Jones DS, MacFadden BJ, Smith DL, Mueller PA, Shuster RD (1987) Florida as an exotic terrane: Pa-leomagnetic and geochronologic investigation of lower Paleozoic rocks from the subsurface of Florida. Geology 15:900–903Google Scholar
  135. Overstreet WC, Bell H III (1965 a) Geologic map of the crystalline rocks of South Carolina. Washington DC, US Geol Surv Misc Geol Invest Map I-413, 1:250000Google Scholar
  136. Overstreet WC, Bell H III (1965b) The crystalline rocks of South Carolina. Washington DC, US Geol Surv Bull 1183: 126Google Scholar
  137. Palmer AR, Secor DT (1983) Comment: Do they really mean Africa? Geol Soc Am Bull 94: 1380Google Scholar
  138. Pojeta J Jr, Kriz J, Berdan JM (1976) Silurian-Devonian pe-lecypods and Paleozoic stratigraphy of subsurface rocks in Florida and Georgia and related Silurian pelecypods from Bolivia and Turkey. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 879: 32Google Scholar
  139. Ponsard JF (1984) La marge du craton Ouest africain du Sénégal a la Sierra Léone: Interprétation géophysique de la chaîne panafricaine et des bassins du Protérozoique a I’Actuel. Thèse Univ Aix-Marseille III, Fr, 198 ppGoogle Scholar
  140. Ponsard JF, Lesquer A, Villeneuve M (1982) Une suture panafricaine sur la bordure occidentale du carton ouestafricain? Compt Rend Acad Sci, Paris 295: 1161–1164Google Scholar
  141. Rankin DW (1975) The continental margin of eastern North America in the southern Appalachians. The opening and closing of the Proto-Atlantic Ocean. Am J Sci 275-A: 298–336Google Scholar
  142. Rankin DW, Drake AA Jr, Glover L III et al. (1988) Pre-orogenic terranes. In: Hatcher RD Jr, Thomas WA, Viele GW (eds) The Appalachian-Ouachita orogen in the United States. Geol Soc Am Geol N Am Boulder, Colorado, F–2 (in press)Google Scholar
  143. Rao KV, Van der Voo R (1980) Paleomagnetism of a Paleozoic anorthosite from the Appalachian Piedmont, northern Delaware: Possible tectonic implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett 47: 113–120Google Scholar
  144. Rast N, Skehan JW (1983) The evolution of the Avalonian plate. Tectonophysics 100: 257–286Google Scholar
  145. Rodgers J (1970) The tectonics of the Appalachians. Wiley, N Y 271 ppGoogle Scholar
  146. Rogers JJW (1982) Criteria for recognizing environments of formation of volcanic suites : application of these criteria to volcanic suites in the Carolina Slate Belt. In : Bearce DN, Black WW, Kish SA, Tull JF (eds) Tectonic studies in the Talladega and Carolina Slate Belts, Southern Appalachian Orogen. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 191: 97–107Google Scholar
  147. Roper PJ, Dunn DE (1973) Superposed deformation and polymetamorphism in the Brevard zone, South Carolina. Geol Soc Am Bull 84: 3373–3386Google Scholar
  148. Ross CR, Bickford ME (1980) The U-Pb age of zircons from the Elberton granite, Piedmont of Georgia. In: Stormer JC, Whitney JA (eds) Geological, geochemical and geophysical studies of the Elberton Batholith, Eastern Georgia. GA Dep Nat Resour Guidebook, Atlanta, 19: 52–62Google Scholar
  149. Ross MI, Scotese CR (1988) A hierachical tectonic model of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region. Tectonophysics 155: 139–168Google Scholar
  150. Ross MI, Scotese CR, Mann P (1986) Computer animation of Caribbean tectonostratigraphic development. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 18 (6): 734Google Scholar
  151. Roussel J, Dia O, Lecorche JP, Ponsard JF, Sougy J, Villeneuve M (1984) Panafrican to Hercynian deformations in the Mauritanides and tectonic significance of gravity anomalies. Tectonophysics 109: 41–59Google Scholar
  152. Rowley DB, Pindell J, Lottes AL, Ziergier AM (1986) Phan-erozoic reconstructions of northern South America, west Africa. North America, and the Caribbean Region. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 18 (69): 735Google Scholar
  153. Russell GS (1985) Reconnaissance geochronological investigations in the Phénix City Gneiss and Bartletts Ferry my-lonite zone. In: Kish SA, Hanley TB, Schamel S (eds) Geology of the southwestern Piedmont of Georgia, Geological Society of America 1985 Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida. Florida State Univ, Tallahassee, Dep Geol pp 9–11Google Scholar
  154. Russell GS, Russell CW, Speer JA, Glover L III (1981) Rb-Sr evidence of latest Precambrian to Cambrian and Allegha-nian plutonism along the eastern margin of the sub-coastal plain Appalachians, North Carolina and Virginia (abs). Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 13 (7): 543Google Scholar
  155. Samson SL (1984) Middle Cambrian fauna of the Carolina slate belt, central South Carolina. MS thesis, Univ S Carol, Columbia, 50 ppGoogle Scholar
  156. Schlager W et al (1984) Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 77, Southeastern Gulf Of Mexico. Bull Geol Soc Am 95: 226–236Google Scholar
  157. Scholle PA (ed) (1979) Geological studies of the COST Ge-1 well, United States South Atlantic outer continental shelf area. US Geol Serv Chirc 800: 113Google Scholar
  158. Scotese CR (1984) Paleozoic paleomagnetism in the assembly of Pangea. In: Van der Voo R, Scotese R, Bonhommet N (eds) Plate reconstruction from Paleozoic magnetism. Am Geophys Union Geodyn Ser 2: 1–10Google Scholar
  159. Scotese CR, Bambach RK, Barton C, Van der Voo R, Ziegler AM (1979) Paleozoic base maps. J Geol 87: 217–277Google Scholar
  160. Secor DT Jr, Peck LS, Pitcher DM et al. (1982) Geology of the area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina. J Geophys Res 87: 6945–6957Google Scholar
  161. Secor DT Jr, Samson SL, Snoke AW, Palmer AR (1983) Confirmation of the Carolina slate belt as an exotic terrane. Science 221: 649–651Google Scholar
  162. Secor DT Jr, Snoke AW, Bramlett KW, Costello OP, Kimbrell OP (1986 a) Character of the Alleghanian orogeny in the southern Appalachians. Part I. Alleghanian deformation in the eastern Piedmont of South Carolina. Geol Soc Am 97: 1319–1328Google Scholar
  163. Secor DT Jr, Snoke AW, Dallmeyer RD (1986b) Character of the Alleghanian orogeny in the southern Appalachians. Part III. Regional tectonic relations. Geol Soc Am Bull 97: 1345–1353Google Scholar
  164. Seiders VM (1978) A chemically bimodal, calc-alkalic suite of volcanic rocks, Carolina state belt, central north Carolina. S E Geol 19:241–265Google Scholar
  165. Shaw HF, Wasserburg G (1984) Isotopic constraints on the origin of Appalachian mafic complexes. Am J Sci 284: 319–349Google Scholar
  166. Sinha AK, Costain JK, Glover L III (1980) Distribution and analysis of 300 m. y. old granites as a potential geothermal resource. Rep VPI&SU-LASL-2, Los Alamos Sci Lab Contr N28–7750G–1Google Scholar
  167. Sinha AK, Hewitt DA, Rimstidt JD (1986) Radiometric ages and metamorphic geochemistry of mylonites. Terra Cognita 6 (2):253Google Scholar
  168. Smith DL (1983) Basement model for the panhandle of Florida. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 23: 203–208Google Scholar
  169. Snoke AW, Kish SA, Secor DT Jr (1980) Deformed Hercynian granitic rocks from the Piedmont of South Carolina. Am J Sci 280: 1018–1034Google Scholar
  170. Speer JA (1982) Descriptions of the granitoid rocks associated with two gravity minima in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. S Carol Geol 26: 15–24Google Scholar
  171. Speer JA, Becker SW, Farrar SS (1980) Field relations and petrology of the postmetamorphic coarse-grained granitoids and associated rocks of the southern Appalachian Piedmont. In: Wones DR (ed) Proc Caledonides USA Dep Geol Sci Blacksburg, Virginia Polytechn Inst State Univ, Mem 2: 137–148Google Scholar
  172. Steiger RH, Jäger E (1977) Subcommission on geochronolo-gy: convention on the use of decay constants in geo- and cosmochronology. Earth Planet Sci Lett 36: 359–362Google Scholar
  173. St Jean J (1973) A new Cambrian trilobite from the Piedmont of North Carolina. Am J Sci 273 A: 196–216Google Scholar
  174. Stoddard EF, Cavaroc W, McDaniel RD (1978) Status of geologic research in the Raleigh belt. In: Snoke AW (ed) Geological investigations of the eastern Piedmont, southern Appalachians (Carolina Geological Society field trip guidebook 1978). S Carol Geol Surv Columbia, pp 8–12Google Scholar
  175. Stow SH, Neilson MJ, Neathery TL (1984) Petrography, geochemistry, and tectonic significance of the amphibolites of the Alabama Piedmont. In: Misra KC, McSween HY Jr (eds) Mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Appalachian or-ogen. Am J Sci 284: 416–436Google Scholar
  176. Sutter JF, Milton DJ, Kunk MJ (1983) 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum dating of gabbro plutons and surrounding rocks in the Charlotte belt of North Carolina. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 15:110Google Scholar
  177. Sutter JF, Horton JW Jr, Kunk MJ (1984) Timing of Allegha-nian metamorphism in the Kings Mountain belt of North Carolina and South Carolina. Geol Soc Am Progr Abstr 16:201Google Scholar
  178. Taylor PT, Zietz I, Dennis LS (1968) Geologic implications of aeromagnetic data for the eastern continental margin of the United States. Geophysics 33: 755–780Google Scholar
  179. Thomas WA, Chowns TM, Daniels DL, Neathery TL, Glover L, Geason RJ (1989) (in press) The subsurface Appalachians beneath the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. Geol Soc Am DNAG Ser, Appalachian-Ouachita VolGoogle Scholar
  180. Thorman CH (1976) Implications of klippen and a new sedimentary unit at Gibi mountains (Liberia, West Africa), in the problem of Pan african — Liberian age province boundary. Geol Soc Am Bull 87: 251–268Google Scholar
  181. Tobish OT, Glover L (1969) Metamorphic changes across part of the Carolina Slate Belt-Charlotte Belt boundary, North Carolina and Virgina. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 650-C: C1–C7Google Scholar
  182. Van Breemer O, Dallmeyer RD (1984) The scale of Sr isotop-ic diffusion during post-metamorphic cooling of gneisses in the Inner Piedmont of Georgia, southern Appalachians. Earth Planet Sci Lett 68: 141–150Google Scholar
  183. Van der Voo R, Johnson RJE (1985) Paleomagnetism of the Dunn Point Formation (Nova Scotia): High paleolatitudes for the Avalon terrane in the late Ordovician. Geophys Res Lett 12: 337–340Google Scholar
  184. Villeneuve M (1984) Etude géologique sur la bordure sud-ouest du craton ouest-Africain: La suture Panfricaine et l’évolution des bassins sedimentares protérozoiques et pa-lérozoiques de la marge nw du continent de Gondwana. Thèse Doct Etat, Univ Aix-Marseille III, 552 ppGoogle Scholar
  185. Villeneuve M, Dallmeyer RD (1987) Geodynamic evolution of the Mauritanide, Bassaride, and Rokelide Orogens (West Africa). Precambrian Res 37: 19–28Google Scholar
  186. Wagener HD (1977) The granitic stone resources of South Carolina. S Carol Geol Surv, Columbia, Miner Resour Ser 5:65Google Scholar
  187. Weiner SW, Merschat CE (1988) Summary of geology between the Great Smoky fault at Parksville, Tennessee and basement rocks of the Blue Ridge at Glade Gap, North Carolina. Tenn Div Geol Rep Invest 37, Field trips S Appalachians, Milici, RC 86 ppGoogle Scholar
  188. Whitney JA, Paris TA, Carpenter RH, Hartley ME III (1978) Volcanic evolution of the southern slate belt of Georgia and South Carolina: A primative oceanic island arc. J Geol 86:173–192Google Scholar
  189. Whittington HB, Hughes CP (1972) Ordovician geography and faunal provinces deduced from trilobite distribution. R Soc Lond Philos Trans Ser B, 263: 235–278Google Scholar
  190. Williams H, Hatcher RD (1982) Suspect terranes and accre-tionary history of the Appalachian orogen. Geology 10: 530–536Google Scholar
  191. Williams H, Hatcher JD (1983) Appalachian suspect terranes. In: Hatcher RD Jr, Williams H, Zietz I (eds) Contributions to the tectonics and geophysics of mountain chains. Geol Soc Am Mem 158:33–53Google Scholar
  192. Williams HR (1978) The Archean geology of Sierra Leone. Precambrian Res 6: 251–268Google Scholar
  193. Williams HR (1979) An archean suture in Sierra Leone. Nature (Lond) 286: 608–609Google Scholar
  194. Wilson JT (1966) Did the Atlantic close and then re-open? Nature (Lond) 211: 676–681Google Scholar
  195. Wright JE, Seiders VM (1980) Age of zircon from volcanic rocks of the central North Carolina Piedmont and tectonic implications for the Carolina volcanic slate belt. Geol Soc Am Bull I 91: 287–294Google Scholar
  196. Zeitz I (1982) Composite magnetic anomaly map of the United States. US Geol Surv Map GP-954A, scale 1: 2500000Google Scholar
  197. Zen E-an (1981) An alternative model for the development of the allochthonous southern Appalachian Piedmont. Am J Sci 281: 1153–1163Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. D. Dallmeyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations