Processes of Deformation and Fracture of Ice in Compression

  • Ian J. Jordaan
  • Richard F. McKenna
Part of the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics book series (IUTAM)


The analysis of crushing of ice in compression is addressed. As background, a test result from the Pond Inlet spherical indenter experiments is presented. This shows the dramatic fluctuations in load experienced when crushing is the dominant mechanism of ice fracture. In order to analyse the degradation of strength of ice in compression, damage mechanics is used. Starting with combined Maxwell and Kelvin elements to model undamaged ice, a rate-theory approach is used to generate microcracks. Separate sets are developed, one for the Maxwell and the other for the Kelvin element. The effect of microcracks is to degrade the elastic potential of both elements and to cause an enhancement of viscous movements, taken as being stress-dependent, also for both elements. The analysis is developed in the context of thermodynamic theory and the results are compared to a set of experiments. Good agreement is obtained. Phenomena which lie outside the framework of the viscoelastic elements are discussed. These relate primarily to frictional movements across newly developed crack faces. Stick-slip movement is a possible mechanism in this regard. Sintering, which can be seen as the reverse of the damage process, is also potentially of importance. Immediately following rapid release of strain energy, kinetic effects may need to be considered.


Creep Rate Triaxial Test Crack Density Helmholtz Free Energy Secondary Creep 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian J. Jordaan
    • 1
  • Richard F. McKenna
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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