Manipulation of Genome Composition. B. Gene Dose: Duplication, Polyploidy and Gametic Chromosome Number
Gene dose manipulation can go in two directions: an increasing or decreasing. Both can involve segments of chromosomes, entire chromosomes or genomes. A decrease in gene dose involving chromosome segments (deficiencies) is usually intended to remove specific genes and has been mentioned in Sections 5.1.2, 220.127.116.11.1 and 10.1. Removal of entire chromosomes results in monosomy or nullisomy which have their special applications in research and chromosome manipulation (Sects. 6.2.1 and 10.4.3). In this chapter reduction will be discussed only insofar as it concerns entire genomes, primarily in the form of the gametic chromosome number (Sect. 11.4).
KeywordsGene Dose Chiasma Frequency Genome Composition Unreduced Gamete Preferential Pairing
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