Advertisement

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton: In Vitro Culture and the Production of Caffeic Acid

  • N. Ishikura
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 15)

Abstract

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. crispa (Thunb.) Decaisne, belonging to the family Labiatae, is distributed widely in Japan, China, and southeast Asia. It is an annual herb about 1 m in height, and includes several forms such as f. purpurea Makino (Chirimen-aka-shiso or Aka-shiso) (Fig. 1) and f. viridis Makino (Chirimen-ao-shiso or Ao-shiso) having deep red-purple and green leaves, respectively. Perilla plants contain essential oil at about 0.5% of fresh leaf weight and give out a fragrance, principles of which are Perilla-aldehyde (55%), d-limonene (20–30%), and α-pinene (Yoshiki 1911); linoleic, stearic, and palmitic acids are also contained as the major aliphatic acids. According to the extensive study on pigments of Chirimen-aka-shiso (Ishikura 1981), 16 kinds of flavonoids including five antho-cyanins, two flavones, and nine flavone glycosides are present in the mature dark-red leaves and seeds. Among these flavonoids, the 3-p-coumaroylglucoside-5-glucoside of cyanidin (shisonin) and the 7-caffeoylglucosides of apigenin and luteolin are the major component in the leaves. In seeds, apigenin and luteolin are present in a ratio of about 1:1. With other phenolics, a large amount of caffeic acid derivatives are present in the leaves.

Keywords

Caffeic Acid Cell Suspension Culture Rosmarinic Acid Stationary Growth Phase Shikimic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amrhein N, Schab J, Steinrücken HC (1980) The mode of action of the herbicide glyphosate. Naturwissenschaften 67:356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Furukawa S, Tomisawa Z (1920) Distribution, yields, physiology and chemical components of shiso-oil from Perilla nankinensis. Kogyokagaku Kaishi 2 3:342–362 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  3. Gamborg OL (1966) Aromatic metabolism in plants II. Enzymes of the shikimate pathway in suspension cultures of plant cells. Can J Biochem 44:791–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gracza L, Koch H, Löffler E (1985) Über biochemisch-pharmakologische Untersuchungen pflanzlicher Arzneistoffe, 1. Mitteilung. Isolierung von Rosmannsäure aus Symphytum officinale und ihre antiinflammatorische Wirksamkeit in einem In-vitro-Modell. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 318:1090–1095 318:1090-1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Holländer H, Amrhein N (1980) The site of the inhibition of the shikimate pathway by glyphosate I. Inhibition by glyphosate of phenylpropanoid synthesis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Plant Physiol 66:823–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ibrahim RK, Edgar D (1976) Phenolic synthesis in Perilla cell suspension cultures. Phytochemistry 15:129–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ishikura N (1972) Anthocyanins and other phenolics in autumn leaves. Phytochemistry 11:2555–2558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ishikura N (1981) Anthocyanins and flavones in leaves and seeds of Perilla plant. Agr Biol Chem 45:1855–1860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ishikura N, Takeshima Y (1984) Effects of glyphosate on caffeic acid metabolism in Perilla cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Physiol 25:185–189.Google Scholar
  10. Ishikura N, Iwata M, Mitsui S (1983) The influence of some inhibitors on the formation of caffeic acid in cultures of Perilla cell suspensions. Bot Mag (Tokyo) 96:111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ishikura N, Teramoto S, Takeshima Y, Mitsui S (1986) Effects of glyphosate on the shikimate pathway and regulation of Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in Cryptomeria and Perilla cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Physiol 27:677–684.Google Scholar
  12. Mitchell JP, Gildow FE (1975) The initiation and maintenance of Vicia faba tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 34:250–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rubin JL, Gaines CG, Jensen RA (1982) Enzymological basis for herbicidal action of glyphosate. Plant Physiol 70:833–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shibata K (ed) (1949) A cyclopedia of useful plants and plant products. Hokuryukan, Tokyo, p 312 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  16. Sugisawa H, Ohnishi Y (1976) Isolation and identification of monoterpenes from cultured cells of Perilla plant. Agr Biol Chem 40:231–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Yoshiki Y (1911) Studies on the components of shiso-oil. Yakugaku Zasshi 31:1–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Ishikura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Science, Faculty of ScienceKumamoto UniversityKumamoto-Shi, 860Japan

Personalised recommendations