Communicating with Electric Organ Discharges

  • Bernd Kramer
Part of the Zoophysiology book series (ZOOPHYSIOLOGY, volume 29)


During his voyage to the Orinoco river around 1800, Alexander von Humboldt reported communal attack responses in electric eels, and their power to stun prey as large as horses and mules by electric discharges. (He knew about the then recent discoveries concerning the nature of electricity, in which strong electric fish, such as the electric eel, took an instrumental part; Wu 1984; Zimmermann 1985.) Mutual attraction among electric eels when attacking prey and feeding was observed in wading pools (Cox 1938; Bullock 1969).


Electric Organ Discharge High Discharge Rate Attack Pattern Swimming Pattern Stimulus Fish 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd Kramer
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoological Institute of the UniversityRegensburgGermany

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