Uncertainties in Using Empirical, Steady-State Models to Estimate Critical Loads of Strong Acids to Lakes

  • David F. Brakke
  • Arne Henriksen


There is spatial correspondence between acidic deposition, the occurrence of acidic lakes and the loss of fish populations in acid sensitive areas. Various models have been developed to explain the relationships between the deposition of strong acids and lake acidification. There are uncertainties in the models due to an imperfect knowledge of processes controlling the response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic inputs. We review the major areas of uncertainty in making estimates of critical loads of strong acids to lakes.


Critical Load Strong Acid Organic Anion Base Cation Sulfate Deposition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Battarbee, R.W., Flower, R., Stevenson, T. and Harriman, R.: 1988, Nature 332, 530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergman, H.L., Mattice, J.S. and Brown, D.J.A.: 1988, Can. J. Fish. Aq. Sci. 45, 1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brakke, D.F., Eilers, J.M. and Landers, D.H.: 1987, ‘Hydrologic and chemical aharacteristics of darkwater, clearwater and acidic lakes in the United States’ in Acidification and water pathways, Norwegian National Committee on Hydrology, Oslo. p. 281–290Google Scholar
  4. Brakke, D.F., Landers, D.H. and Eilers, J.M.: 1988, Environ. Sci. Technol. 22, 155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brakke, D.F., Landers, D.H. and Eilers, J.M.: 1988, Environ. Sci. Technol. 22, 155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brakke, D.F., Landers, D.H. and Eilers, J.M.: 1988, Environ. Sci. Technol. 22, 155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davis, R.B.: 1987, Quat. Sci. Rev. 6, 147Google Scholar
  8. Davis, R.B., Anderson, R.S. and Berge, F.: 1985, Nature 316, 436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dillon, P.J., Reid, R.A. and deGrobois, E.: 1987, Nature 329, 45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Driscoll, C.T. and Newton, R.M.: 1985, Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Driscoll, C.T., Yatsko, C.P. and Unagst, F.J.: 1987., Biogeochem. 3, 37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eilers, J.M., Brakke, D.F., Landers, D.H. and Kellar, P.E.: 1988, Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 23, 144Google Scholar
  13. Forsius, M.: this volumeGoogle Scholar
  14. Grennfelt, P. and Hultberg, H.: 1986, Water Air Soil Pollut. 30, 945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hauhs, M. and Wright, R.F.:1988. Air pollution report no. 11, Commission of European Communities, Brussels.Google Scholar
  16. Henriksen, A.: 1980, ‘Acidification of freshwaters - a large scale titration’ in Drablos, D. and Tollan, A.(eds.), Ecological impact of acid precipitation. SNSF project, Oslo, pp 68–74Google Scholar
  17. Henriksen, A.: 1984, Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22, 692Google Scholar
  18. Henriksen, A. and Brakke, D.F.: 1988a, Environ. Sci. Technol. 22, 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Henriksen, A. and Brakke, D.F.: 1988b, Water Air Soil Pollut. 42, 183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Henriksen, A., Brakke, D.F. and Norton, S.A.: 1988a., Environ. Sci. Technol. 22, 1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Henriksen, A., Lien, L., Traaen, T.S., Sevalrud, I.S. and Brakke,D.F.: 1988b, Ambio 17, 259Google Scholar
  22. Henriksen, A., Lien, L., Rosseland, B.O., Traaen, T.S. and Sevalrud, I.S.: in review, Ambio Google Scholar
  23. Kelly, C.A., Rudd, J.W.M., Hesslein, R.H., Schindler, D.W., Dillon,P.J., Driscoll, C.T., Gherini, S.A. and Hecky, R.E.: 1987, Biogeochem. 3, 129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kortelainen, P.: this volumeGoogle Scholar
  25. Krug,E.C. and Prink, C.R.: 1983, Science 221, 520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Loranger, T.J. and Brakke, D.F.: 1988, Water Resources Res. 24, 723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nilsson, J. (ed.): 1986, Critical loads for nitrogen and sulphur,Nordic Council of Ministers, Miljorapport 1986:11 StockholmGoogle Scholar
  28. Nilsson, J. and Greenfelt, P.: 1988, Critical loads for sulphur and nitrogen,Nordic Council of Ministers, Miljorapport 1988:15 StockholmGoogle Scholar
  29. Norton, S.A., Kahl, J.S., Brakke, D.F., Brewer, G.F., Haines, T.A.and Nodvin, S.C.: 1988a, Science Total Environ. 72, 1983Google Scholar
  30. Norton, S.A., Mitchell, M.J., Kahl, J.S. and Brewer, G.F.: 1988b, Water Air Soil Pollut. 39, 33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reckhow, K.H., Black, R.W., Stockton, T.B., Jr., Vogt, J.D., and Wood, J.G.: 1988, Can. J. Fish. Aq. Sci. 44, 1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reuss, J.O., Cosby, B.J. and Wright, R.F.: 1987, Nature 329, 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rudd, J.W.M., Kelly, C.A., St.Louis, V., Hesslein, R.H., Furutani,A. and Holoka, M.H.: 1986, Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 1265Google Scholar
  34. Schiff, S.L. and Anderson, R.F.: 1986, Water Air Soil Pollut. 31, 941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schiff, S.L. and Anderson, R.F.: 1987, Can. J. Fish. Aq. Sci. 44 (Suppl.1), 173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schindler, D.W.: 1985, ‘The coupling of elemental cycles by organisms; Evidence from whole-lake chemical perturbations’ in Stumm, W.(ed.), Chemical processes in lakes, Wiley, New York, pp 225–250Google Scholar
  37. Schindler, D.W.:1988, Science. 239, 149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rochelle, B.P. and Church, M.R.:1987, Water Air Soil Pollut. 36, 61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rochelle, B.P., Church, M.R. and David, M.B.:1987, Water Air Soil Pollut. 33, 73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sullivan, T.J., Eilers, J.M. and Brakke, D.F.: in review, Water Air Soil Pollut Google Scholar
  41. Wright, R.F. and Henriksen, A.: 1983, Nature, 305, 422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wright, R.F.,Lotse,E. and Semb,A.: 1988, Nature, 334, 670CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • David F. Brakke
    • 1
  • Arne Henriksen
    • 2
  1. 1.Inst. for Watershed StudiesWestern Washington Univ.BellinghamUSA
  2. 2.Norwegian Inst. for Water Res.Blindern, OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations