Uncertainties in Using Empirical, Steady-State Models to Estimate Critical Loads of Strong Acids to Lakes

  • David F. Brakke
  • Arne Henriksen

Summary

There is spatial correspondence between acidic deposition, the occurrence of acidic lakes and the loss of fish populations in acid sensitive areas. Various models have been developed to explain the relationships between the deposition of strong acids and lake acidification. There are uncertainties in the models due to an imperfect knowledge of processes controlling the response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic inputs. We review the major areas of uncertainty in making estimates of critical loads of strong acids to lakes.

Keywords

Europe Titration Acidity Denitrification Alkalinity 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • David F. Brakke
    • 1
  • Arne Henriksen
    • 2
  1. 1.Inst. for Watershed StudiesWestern Washington Univ.BellinghamUSA
  2. 2.Norwegian Inst. for Water Res.Blindern, OsloNorway

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