The Finnish Integrated Acidification Model

  • Matti Johansson
  • Ilkka Savolainen
  • Markus Tähtinen

Summary

The Finnish Integrated Acidification Model (HAKOMA) consists of modules for emissions, emission abatement costs, atmospheric dispersion, transformation and deposition, and impacts on forest soils and lakes. Development of the model is carried out in co-operation with several research institutes. The model is being developed both for the assessment of importance of different factors related to acidification and for the assessment of various emission abatement policies. It includes time-dependent simulations of forest soil and lake acidification processes and considers the dynamic nature of ecosystems. The existing buffer capacity and its depletion is assumed to have an effect on the ecological impacts of acidic deposition. A study consisting of a number of test simulations is now going on to clarify the importance of various parameters.

Keywords

Magnesium Europe Transportation Diesel Gasoline 

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References

  1. Alcamo, J., Amann, M., Hettelingh, J.-P., Holmberg, M., Hordijk, L., Kämäri, J., Kauppi, L., Kornai, G. and Mäkelä, A.: 1987, Ambio 16, 232Google Scholar
  2. Järvinen, O.: 1986, Laskeuman laatu Suomessa 1971–1982 (Deposition measurements in Finland 1971–1982). National Board of Waters, Mineographed report 408, Helsinki, Finland (in Finnish)Google Scholar
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  5. Savolainen, I. and Tähtinen, M.: 1988, Estimation of the Emission Inventories for the Finnish Integrated Acidification Model. Proceedings of the NILU/IIASA Task Force Meeting on Accuracy of Inventories, 8–10 March, Lauenburg, AustriaGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matti Johansson
    • 1
  • Ilkka Savolainen
    • 1
  • Markus Tähtinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical Resarch Centre of FinlandHelsinkiFinland

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