The Finnish Integrated Acidification Model
The Finnish Integrated Acidification Model (HAKOMA) consists of modules for emissions, emission abatement costs, atmospheric dispersion, transformation and deposition, and impacts on forest soils and lakes. Development of the model is carried out in co-operation with several research institutes. The model is being developed both for the assessment of importance of different factors related to acidification and for the assessment of various emission abatement policies. It includes time-dependent simulations of forest soil and lake acidification processes and considers the dynamic nature of ecosystems. The existing buffer capacity and its depletion is assumed to have an effect on the ecological impacts of acidic deposition. A study consisting of a number of test simulations is now going on to clarify the importance of various parameters.
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