Rice pp 422-446 | Cite as

Molecular Analysis of Rice Genes and Methods for Gene Transfer

  • M. Rothenberg
  • R. Wu
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 14)

Abstract

Plant breeding methods are commonly used to increase rice production. Genetic diversity has been introduced into cultivars through crosses with rice varieties containing novel genotypes and possessing valuable phenotypic traits. In conjunction with selection for desirable traits, superior rice plants can be produced. Characteristics which would benefit rice cultivars include tolerance to environmental stresses and resistance to disease and insects. It is hoped that in the future, molecular biology and genetic engineering techniques will also contribute to improving cultivated rice. For these reasons our research has centered on (1) analyzing the expression and organization of rice nuclear and organellar genes and (2) developing methods for transformation and regeneration of rice plants. Discussed below are a number of recent advances in rice molecular biology, some of which may be applicable to crop improvement.

Keywords

Starch Recombination Respiration Tungsten Germinate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baird WV, Meagher RB (1987) A complex gene superfamily encodes actin in petunia. EMBO J 6: 3223–3234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes SR, Pental D (1986) Repeated DNA sequences and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase as tools for the study of rice evolution. In: Rice genetics Proc Int Symp. Island Publ House, Manila, pp 41–52Google Scholar
  3. Bhargava AK, Padayatty JD (1985) Cloning of rice DNA in lambda charon 4 phage and identification of the gene for a ribosomal protein. Indian J Biochem Biophys 22: 261–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonen L, Boer PH, Gray MW (1984) The wheat cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene has an intron insert and three radical amino acid changes relative to maize. EMBO J 3: 2531–2536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Broglie R, Corruzi G, Lamppa G, Keith B, Chua N-H (1983) Structural analysis of nuclear genes coding for the precursor to the small subunit of wheat ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Bio/technology 1: 55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang TT (1976) The origin, evolution, cultivation, dissemination and diversification of Asian and African rices. Euphytica 25: 425–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cocking EC, Davey MR (1987) Gene transfer in cereals. Science 236: 1259–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Côté J-C, Wu R (1988) Sequence of the chloroplast psbF gene encoding the photosystem II 10 kDa phosphoprotein from Oryza saliva L. Nucleic Acids Res 16: 10384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cox KH, Angerer LM, Lee JJ, Davidson EH, Angerer RC (1986) Cell lineage-specific programs of expression of multiple actin genes during sea urchin embryogenesis. J Mol Biol 188: 159–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daniels GR, Deininger PL (1985) A second major class of Alu family repeated DNA sequences in a primate genome. Nucleic Acids Res 11: 7595–7610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Block M, Botterman J, Vandewiele M, Dockx J, Thoen C, Gosselé V, Rao Movva N, Thompson C, Van Montagu M, Leemans J (1987) Engineering herbicide resistance in plants by expression of a detoxifying enzyme. EMBO J 6: 2513–2518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dewey RE, Levings CS III, Timothy DH (1986) Novel recombinations in the maize mitochondria) genome produce a unique transcriptional unit in the Texas male-sterile cytoplasm. Cell 44: 439–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DiNocera PP, Dawid IB (1983) Transient expression of genes introduced into cultured cells of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 7095–7098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duan X, Chen S (1985) Variation of the characters in rice (Oryza saliva) induced by foreign DNA uptake. China Agric Sci 3: 6–9Google Scholar
  15. Dynan WS, Tjian R (1985) Control of eukaryotic messenger RNA synthesis by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. Nature (London) 316: 774–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Erdmann VA (1982) Collection of published 5S and 5.8S RNA sequences and their precursors. Nucleic Acids Res 10: 93–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flavell R (1980) The molecular characterization and organization of plant chromosomal DNA sequences. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31: 569–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Freeling M, Bennett DC (1985) Maize Adhl. Annu Rev Genet 19: 297–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fyrberg EA, Bond JB, Hershey ND, Mister KS, Davidson N (1981) The actin genes of Drosophila: protein coding regions are highly conserved but intron positions are not. Cell 24: 107–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gerlach WL, Llewellyn D, Haseloff J (1987) Construction of a plant disease resistance gene from the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus. Nature (London) 328: 802–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Golden SS, Haselkorn R (1985) Mutation to herbicide resistance maps within thepsbA gene ofAnacystis nidulans R2. Science 229: 1104–1107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Graves ACF, Goldman SL (1986) The transformation of Zea mays seedlings with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Mol Biol 7: 43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Green PJ, Kay SA, Chua N-H (1987) Sequence-specific interactions of a pea nuclear factor with light-responsive elements upstream of the rbcS-3A gene. EMBO J 6: 2543–2549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Grimsley N, Hohn T, Davies JW, Hohn B (1987) Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of infectious maize streak virus into maize plants. Nature (London) 325:177–179Google Scholar
  25. Hariharan N, Reddy PS, Padayatty JD (1987) 5S-rRNA genes in rice embryos. Plant Mol Biol 9:443–451Google Scholar
  26. Harrison BD, Mayo MA, Baulcombe DC (1987) Virus resistance in transgenic plants that express cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA. Nature (London) 328: 799–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hightower RC, Meagher RB (1985) Divergence and differential expression of soybean actin genes. EMBO J 4: 1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hightower RC, Meagher RB (1986) The molecular evolution of actin. Genetics 114: 315–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Higuchi W, Fukazawa C (1987) A rice glutelin and a soybean glycinin have evolved from a common ancestral gene. Gene 55: 245–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hirschberg J, McIntosh L (1983) Molecular basis of herbicide resistance in A maranthus hybridus. Science 222: 1346–1349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang J-K, Swegle M, Dandekar M, Muthukrishnan S (1984) Expression and regulation of a-amylase gene family in barley aleurones. J Mol Appl Genet 2: 579–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Jacobsen JV, Beach LR (1985) Control of transcription ofa-amylase and rRNA genes in barley aleurone protoplasts by gibberellin and abscisic acid. Nature (London) 316: 275–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jefferson RA, Burgess SM, Hirsh D (1986) ß-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli as a gene-fusion marker. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 8447–8451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kadowaki KI, Matsuoka M, Murai N, Harada K (1988) Induction of two alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptides in rice roots during anaerobiosis. Plant Sci 54: 29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kao TH, Moon E, Wu R (1984) Cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene of rice has an insertion sequence within the intron. Nucleic Acids Res 12: 7305–7315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kikuchi S, Takaiwa F, Oono K (1987) Variable copy number DNA sequences in rice. Mol Gen Genet 210: 373–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kinoshita T (1984) Gene analysis and linkage map. In: Tsunoda S, Takahashi N (eds) Biology of rice. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, pp 187–274Google Scholar
  38. Klein TM, Wolf ED, Wu R, Sanford JC (1987) High-velocity microprojectiles for delivering nucleic acids into living cells. Nature (London) 327: 70–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klein TM, Fromm M, Weissinger A, Tomes D, Schaff S, Sletten M, Sanford JC (1988a) Transfer of foreign genes into intact maize cells using high-velocity microprojectiles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 4305–4309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Klein TM, Gradziel T, Fromm ME, Sanford JC (1988b) Factors influencing gene delivery into Zea mays cells by high-velocity microprojectiles. Bio/technology 6: 559–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lebrun M, Waksman G, Freyssinet G (1987) Nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding corn ribulose1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (rbcS). Nucleic Acids Res 15: 4360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Loesch-Fries LS, Merlo D, Zinnen T, Burhop L, Hill K, Krahn K, Jarvis N, Nelson S, Halk E (1987) Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 in transgenic plants confers virus resistance. EMBO J 6: 1845–1851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lonsdale DM, Hodge TP, Howe CJ, Stern DB (1983) Maize mitochondria) DNA contains a sequence homologous to the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene of chloroplast DNA. Cell 34: 1007–1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Luo Z-X, Wu R (1988) A simple method for the transformation of rice via the pollen-tube pathway. Plant Mol Biol Rep 6: 165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maier U-G, Brown JWS, Toloczyki C, Feix G (1987) Binding of a nuclear factor to a consensus sequence in the 5’ flanking region of zein genes from maize. EMBO J 6: 17–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Maier UG, Brown JWS, Schmitz LM, Schwall M, Dietrich G, Feix G (1988) Mapping of tissuedependent and independent protein binding sites to the 5’ upstream region of a zein gene. Mol Gen Genet 212: 241–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCouch SR, Kochert G, Yu ZH, Wang ZY, Khush GS, Coffman WR, Tanksley SD (1988) Molecular mapping of rice chromosomes. Theor Appl Genet 76: 815–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McElroy D, Rothenberg M, Wu R (1990) Structural characterization ofa rice actin gene. Plant Mol Biol 14: 163–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McOsker JE (1984) The actin genes of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. MS thesis, Cornell Univ, Ithaca Moon E (1988) Structure and expression of the mitochondrial COIL gene and characterization of multiple copies of the chloroplast rbcL gene cluster in rice. PhD thesis, Cornell Univ, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  50. Moon E, Wu R (1988) Organization and nucleotide sequence of genes at both junctions between the two inverted repeats and the large single-copy region in the rice chloroplast genome. Gene 70: 1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moon E, Kao TH, Wu R (1987) Rice chloroplast DNA molecules are heterogeneous as revealed by DNA sequence of a cluster of genes. Nucleic Acids Res 15: 611–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moon E, Kao TH, Wu R (1988) Rice mitochondrial genome contains a rearranged chloroplast gene cluster, Mol Gen Genet 213: 247–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Morishima H (1984) Wild plants and domestication. In: Tsunoda S, Takahashi N (eds) Biology of rice. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, pp 3–30Google Scholar
  54. Mullis KB, Faloona FA (1987) Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction. Meth Enzymol 155: 335–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mundy J, Chua N-H (1988) Abscisic acid and water-stress induce the expression of a novel rice gene. EMBO J 7: 2279–2286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Nayar NM (1973) Origin and cytogenetics of rice. In: Caspari EW (ed) Advances in genetics Academic Press, New York London, pp 153–292Google Scholar
  57. Okimoto R, Sachs MM, Porter EG, Freeling M (1980) Patterns of polypeptide synthesis in various maize organs under anaerobiosis. Planta 150: 89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Okita TW, Hwang YS, Hnilo J, Kim WT, Aryan AP, Larson R, Krishnam HB (1989) Structure and expression of the rice glutelin multigene family. J Biol Chem 264: 12573–12581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Oono K, Sugiura M (1980) Heterogeneity of the ribosomal RNA gene clusters in rice. Chromosoma 76: 85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ou-Lee TM, Turgeon R, Wu R (1986) Expression of a foreign gene linked to either a plant-virus or a Drosophila promoter, after electroporation of protoplasts of rice, wheat, and sorghum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 6815–6819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ou-Lee TM, Turgeon R, Wu R (1988) Interaction of a gibberellin-induced factor with the upstream region of an a-amylase gene in rice. Proc Nall Acad Sci USA 85: 6366–6369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Palmer JD (1985) Evolution of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in plants and algae. In: Maclntyre RJ (ed) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Plenum, New York, pp 131–240Google Scholar
  63. Peng ZG, Wu R (1986) A simple and rapid nucleotide sequencing strategy and its application in analyzing a rice histone 3 gene. Gene 45: 247–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pental D, Barnes SR (1985) Interrelationship of cultivated ricer Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima with wild O. perennis complex. Theor Appl Genet 70: 185–191Google Scholar
  65. Reece KS (1988) The actin gene family of rice (Oryza sauva L.). PhD thesis, Cornell Univ, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  66. Reece K, Wu R (1985) Cloning and analysis of actin genes of rice. In: 1st Congr Plant molecular biology, Savannah, GaGoogle Scholar
  67. Ricard B, Mocquot B, Fournier A, Delseny M, Pradet A (1986) Expression of alcohol dehydrogenase in rice embryos under anoxia. Plant Mol Biol 7: 321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rogers JC (1985) Two barley a-amylase gene families are regulated differently in aleurone cells. J Biol Chem 260: 3731–3738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rutger JN, Brandon DM (1981) California rice culture. Sci Am 244: 42–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sachs MM, Ho THD (1986) Alteration of gene expression during environmental stress in plants. Annu Rev, Plant Physiol 37: 363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sanford JC, Klein TM, Wolf ED, Allen N (1987) Delivery of substances into cells and tissues using a particle bombardment process. Particle Sci Technol 5: 27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sargent TD, Jamrich M, Dawid IB (1986) Cell interaction and the control of gene activity during early development of Xenopus laevis. Dev Biol 114: 238–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shah DM, Hightower RC, Meagher RB (1982) Complete nucleotide sequence of a soybean actin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 1022–1026PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shah DM, Hightower RC, Meagher RB (1983) Genes encoding actin in higher plants: intron positions are highly conserved but the coding sequences are not. J Mol Appl Genet 2: 111–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Shah DM, Horsch RB, Klee HJ, Kishore GM, Winter JA, Turner NE, Hironaka CM, Sanders PR, Gasser CS, Aykent S, Siegel NR, Rogers SG, Fraley RT (1986) Engineering herbicide tolerance in transgenic plants. Science 233: 478–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shinozaki K, Ohme M, Tanaka M,Wakasugi T,Hayashida N, Matsubayashi T, Zaita N, Chunwangse J, Obokata J, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Ohto C, Torazawa K, Meng BY, Sugita M, Deno H, Kamogashira T, Yamada K, Kusuda J, Takaiwa F, Katu A, Tohdoh N, Shimada H, Sugzara M. (1986) The complete nucleotide sequence of the tobacco chloroplast genome: its gene organization and expression. EMBO J 5: 2043–2049Google Scholar
  77. Sprinzl M, Gauss DH (1982) Compilation of tRNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res 10: 1–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stern DB, Lonsdale DM (1982) Mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of maize have a 12-kilobase DNA sequence in common. Nature (London) 299: 698–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stern DB, Palmer JD (1984) Extensive and widespread homologies between mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 1946–1950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Takaiwa F, Oono K, Sugiura M (1984) The complete nucleotide sequence of a rice 17S rRNA gene. Nucleic Acids Res 12: 5441–5448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Takaiwa F, Oono K, Sugiura M (1985a) Nucleotide sequence of the 17S–25S spacer region from rice rDNA. Plant Mole Biol 4: 355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Takaiwa F, Oono K, Lida Y, Sugiura M (1985b) The complete nucleotide sequence of a rice 25S-rRNA gene. Gene 37: 255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Takaiwa F, Kikuchi S, Oono K (1987) A rice glutelin gene family — A major type of glutelin mRNAs can be divided into two classes. Mol Gen Genet 208: 15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Thomas G, Padayatty JD (1983) Organization and bidirectional transcription of H2A, H2B and H4 histone genes in rice embryos. Nature (London) 306: 82–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Toriyama K, Arimoto Y, Uchimiya H, Hinata K (1988) Transgenic rice plants after direct gene transfer into protoplasts. Bio/technology 6: 1072–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Uchimiya H, Fushimi T, Hashimoto H, Harada H, Syono K, Sugawara Y (1986) Expression of a foreign gene in callus derived from DNA-treated protoplasts of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mol Gen Genet 204: 204–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vaeck M, Reynaerts A, Höfte H, Jansens S, De Beuckeleer M, Dean C, Zabeau M, Van Montagu M, Leemans J (1987) Transgenic plants protected from insect attack. Nature (London) 328: 33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang Y-C, Klein TM, Fromm M, Cao J, Sanford JC, Wu R (1988) Transient expression of foreign genes in rice, wheat and soybean cells showing particle bombardment. Plant Mol Biol 1 1: 433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Werr W, Springer B, Schürmann J, Bellmann R (1988) Multiple interactions between nuclear proteins of Zea mays and the promoter of the Shrunken gene. Mol Gen Genet 212: 342–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wu HK, Chung MC, Xie Y, Wu R (1986a) Chromosomal localization of rice rbcS genes. Rice Genet Newslet 3: 117–119Google Scholar
  91. Wu NH, Cote JC, Wu R (1986b) Nucleotide sequence of the rice cyctochrome f gene and the presence of sequence variation near this gene. Gene 50: 271–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wu R, Reece KS, McCann M (1986c) Analysis of genes from rice. In: Li Z, Swaminathan MS (eds) Proc 1st Int Symp Chromosome engineering in plants. Science Press, Beijing, pp 141–150Google Scholar
  93. Wu NH, Cote JC, Wu R (1987) Structure of the chloroplast psbA gene encoding the QB protein from Oryza saliva L. Dev Genet 8: 339–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wu R (1989) Methods for transforming plant cells. In: Kung SD, Arntzen CJ (eds) Plant biotechnology. Butterworth, Massachusetts, pp 35–51Google Scholar
  95. Wu T, Wu R (1987) A new rice repetitive DNA shows sequence homology to both 5S RNA and tRNA. Nucleic Acids Res 15: 5913–5923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Xie Y, Wu R (1988) Nucleotide sequence of a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit gene (rbcS) in rice. Nucleic Acids Res 16: 7749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Xie Y, Wu R (1989) Rice alcohol dehydrogenase genes: Anaerobic induction, organ specific expression and characterization of cDNA clones. Plant Mol Biol 13: 53–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yamagata H, Sugimoto T, Tanaka K, Kasai Z (1982) Biosynthesis of storage proteins in developing rice seeds. Plant Physiol 70: 1094–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Young EG, Hanson MR (1987) A fused mitochondrial gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility is developmentally regulated. Cell 50: 41–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhang W, Wu R (1988) Efficient regeneration of transgenic plants from rice protoplasts and correctly regulated expression of the foreign gene in the plants. Theor Appl Genet 76: 835–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhao X, Wu T, Xie Y, Wu R (1989) Genome specific repetitive sequences in the genus Oryza. Theor Appl Genet 76: 835–840Google Scholar
  102. Zheng KL, Castiglione S, Biasini MG, Biroli A, Morandi C, Sala F (1987) Nuclear DNA amplification in cultured cells of Oryza saliva L. Theor Appl Genet 74: 65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zwar JA, Hooley R (1986) Hormonal regulation ofa-amylase gene transcription in wild oat (A vena fatua L.) aleurone protoplasts. Plant Physiol 80: 459–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Rothenberg
  • R. Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell BiologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations