Advertisement

Elicitors and Defense Gene Activation in Cultured Cells

  • Richard A. Dixon
  • Arvind D. Choudhary
  • Robert Edwards
  • Maria J. Harrison
  • Christopher J. Lamb
  • Michael A. Lawton
  • Mehrdad Mavandad
  • Bruce A. Stermer
  • Lloyd Yu
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 47)

Abstract

Active defense of plants against fungal or bacterial pathogens often involves the rapid death of cells in intimate contact with the invading microorganism. Accompanying this so-called hypersensitive response (HR) are rapid localized changes in host metabolism which lead to the synthesis of potential defensive barriers; these include the accumulation of low Mr antimicrobial compounds termed phytoalexins, the deposition of phenolic material and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) in the host cell wall, and the synthesis of hydrolytic enzymes. The exact relationship between the HR and phytoalexin accumulation is still somewhat vague; in some systems, hypersensitive cell death appears to be a pre-requisite for induction and accumulation of phytoalexins in neighboring healthy cells (Bailey 1982), whereas phytoalexin synthesis can be initiated in suspension cultured cells in the absence of serious effects on cell viability (Hamdan and Dixon 1986). It is, however, well documented that molecules from plant pathogenic fungi have the ability to induce both hypersensitive-type cell necrosis and/or phytoalexin accumulation in plant cells. These so-called elicitors often originate from the fungal cell wall.

Keywords

Cinnamic Acid Fungal Elicitor Defense Response Gene Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum Plant Defense Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. An G, Mitra A, Choi MK, Costa MA, An K, Thornburg RW and Ryan, CA (1989). Functional analysis of the 3’ control region of the potato wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor II gene. The plant Cell 1, 115–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey JA (1982). Physiological and biochemical events associated with expression of resistance to disease. In: Active Defense Mechanisms in Plants, ed R.K.S. Wood, Plenum Press, New York, pp 39–65.Google Scholar
  3. Barz W, Daniel S, Hinderer W, Jaques U, Kessmann H, Koster J, Otto C and Tiemann K (1988). Elicitation and metabolism of phytoalexins in plant cell cultures. In: Application of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture, Ciba Foundation Symp. No. 137, Wiley, Chichester, pp 178–198.Google Scholar
  4. Bolwell GP, Cramer CL, Lamb CJ, Schuch W and Dixon RA (1986). L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Phaseolus vulgaris: Modulation of the levels of active enzyme by trans-cinnamic acid. Planta 169, 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolwell GP, Mavandad M, Millar DJ, Edwards KJ, Schuch W and Dixon RA (1988). Inhibition of mRNA levels and activities by trans-cinnamic acid in elicitor-induced bean cells. Phytochemistry 27, 2109–2117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cosio EG, Popperl H, Schmidt W and Ebel J (1988). High-affinity binding of fungal ß-glucan fragments to soybean (Glycine max L.) microsomal fractions and protoplasts. Eur. J. Biochem. 175, 309–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dalkin K, Edwards R, Edington B and Dixon RA (1989). Defense responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) I. Elicitor induction of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and hydrolytic enzymes in cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol., submitted.Google Scholar
  8. Darvill AG and Albersheim P (1984). Phytoalexins and their elicitors a defense against microbial infection in plants. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 35, 243–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis KR, Darvill AG and Albersheim P (1986). Host-pathogen interactions XXXI. Several biotic and abiotic elicitors act synergistically in the induction of phytoalexin accumulation in soybean. Plant Mol. Biol., 6, 23–32.Google Scholar
  10. Davis KR and Hahlbrock K (1987). Induction of defense responses in cultured parsley cells by plant cell wall fragments. Plant Physiol. 85, 1286–1290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dixon RA (1986). The phytoalexin response: elicitation, signalling and the control of host gene expression. Biol. Rev. 61, 239–291.Google Scholar
  12. Dixon RA, Blyden ER, Robbins MP, van Tunen AJ and Mol JNM (1988). Comparative biochemistry of chalcone isomerases. Phytochemistry, 27, 2801–2808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dixon RA, Dey PM and Lamb CJ (1983a). Phytoalexins: enzymology and molecular biology. Adv. Enzymol. Rel. Areas Mol. Biol. 53, 1–136.Google Scholar
  14. Dixon RA, Dey PM, Lawton MA and Lamb CJ (1983b). Phytoalexin induction in French bean. Intracellular transmission of elicitation in cell suspension cultures and hypocotyl sections of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiol. 71, 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dixon RA, Dey PM, Murphy DL and Whitehead IM (1981). Dose response for Colletotrichum lindemuthianum elicitor-mediated enzyme induction in French bean cell suspension cultures. Planta 151, 272–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dixon RA and Harrison MJ (1989). Activation, structure and organization of genes involved in microbial defense in plants. Adv. Genetics, in press.Google Scholar
  17. Dixon RA, Harrison MJ, Lawton MA, Jenkins S and Lamb CJ (1989a). Defense gene transcription factors. J. Cell Biochem. Suppl. 13D, 247.Google Scholar
  18. Dixon RA, Jennings AC, Davies La, Gerrish C and Murphy DL (1989b). Elicitor-active components from French bean hypocotyls. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 34, 99–115.Google Scholar
  19. Dixon RA and Lamb CJ (1989). Regulation of secondary metabolism at the biochemical and genetic levels. Ann. Proc. Phytochem. Soc. Europe, in press.Google Scholar
  20. Dron M, Clouse SD, Dixon RA, Lawton MA and Lamb CJ (1988). Glutathione and fungal elicitor regulation of a plant defense gene promoter in electroporated protoplasts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6738–6742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamdan MAMS and Dixon RA (1986). Differential biochemical effects of elicitor preparations from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 28, 329–344.Google Scholar
  22. Hamdan MAMS and Dixon RA (1987a). Differential patterns of protein synthesis in bean cells exposed to elicitor fractions from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 31, 105–121.Google Scholar
  23. Hamdan MAMS and Dixon RA (1987b). Fractionation and properties of elicitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway from culture filtrates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 31, 91–103.Google Scholar
  24. Kurosaki R, Tsurusawa Y and Nishi A (1987). The elicitation of phytoalexins by Ca2+ and cyclic AMP in carrot cells. Phytochemistry 26, 1919–1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lamb CJ, Lawton MA, Dron M and Dixon RA (1989). Signals and transduction mechanisms for activation of plant defenses against microbial attack. Cell 56, 215–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lawton MA, Dixon RA and Lamb CJ (1980). Elicitor modulation of the turnover of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in French bean cell suspension cultures. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 633, 162–175.Google Scholar
  27. Lawton MA, Kragh K, Jenkins SM, Harrison MJ, Yu L, Dron M, Dixon RA and Lamb CJ (1989). Multiple binding sites for nuclear factors are present in the silencer region of the promoter for the bean chalcone synthase gene. EMBO J., submitted.Google Scholar
  28. Lawton MA and Lamb CJ (1987). Transcriptional activation of plant defense genes by fungal elicitor, wounding and infection. Mol. Cell Biol. 7, 335–341.Google Scholar
  29. Liang X, Dron M, Schmidt J, Dixon RA and Lamb CJ (1989). Developmental and environmental regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase: ß-glucuronidase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, submitted.Google Scholar
  30. Lois R, Dietrich A and Hahlbrock K (1989). A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from parsley: structure, regulation and identification of elicitor and light-responsive cis-acting elements. EMBO J. 8, 1641–1648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lynn DG, Chen RH, Mannings KS and Wood HN (1987). The structural characterization of endogenous factors from Vinca rosea crown gall tumors that promote cell division of tobacco cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84, 615–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmidt WE and Ebel J (1987). Specific binding of a fungal glucan phytoalexin elicitor to membrane fractions from soybean Glycine max. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84, 4117–4121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stab MR and Ebel J (1987). Effects of Ca2+ on phytoalexin induction by fungal elicitor in soybean cells. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 257, 416–423.Google Scholar
  34. Tepper CS, Albert FG and Anderson AJ (1989). Differential mRNA accumulation in three cultivars of bean in response to elicitors from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 34, 85–98.Google Scholar
  35. Thornburg RW, An G, Cleveland TE, Johnson R and Ryan CA (1987). Wound-inducible expression of a potato inhibitor II - chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84, 744–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Walter MH, Grima-Pettenati J, Grand C, Boudet AM and Lamb CJ (1988). Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, a molecular marker specific for lignin synthesis: cDNA cloning and mRNA induction by fungal elicitor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85, 5546–5550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Weising K, Schell J and Kahl G (1988). Foreign genes in plants: transfer, structure, expression, and applications. Annu. Rev. Genet., 22, 421–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wingate VPM, Lawton MA and Lamb CJ (1988). Glutathione causes a massive and selective induction of plant defense genes. Plant Physiol. 87, 206–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Dixon
    • 1
  • Arvind D. Choudhary
    • 1
  • Robert Edwards
    • 1
  • Maria J. Harrison
    • 1
  • Christopher J. Lamb
    • 2
  • Michael A. Lawton
    • 2
  • Mehrdad Mavandad
    • 1
  • Bruce A. Stermer
    • 1
  • Lloyd Yu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Plant Biology DivisionSamuel Roberts Noble FoundationArdmoreUSA
  2. 2.Plant Biology LaboratorySalk Institute for Biological StudiesSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations