• Ulla M. Norberg
Part of the Zoophysiology book series (ZOOPHYSIOLOGY, volume 27)


Soaring costs a minimum of energy compared with other types of flight, for during soaring, energy is extracted from natural winds and converted to potential (height gain) or kinetic (speed gain) energy. Soaring birds usually glide using vertical and horizontal air movements, and they use only additional muscular energy to correct position and to hold the wings down in the horizontal position. Many large birds use soaring when searching for food, during migration, and sometimes for flights between roosting and foraging places.


Vortex Migration Dust Expense Alba 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulla M. Norberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Division of ZoomorphologyUniversity of GöteborgGöteborgSweden

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