• Ulla M. Norberg
Part of the Zoophysiology book series (ZOOPHYSIOLOGY, volume 27)


Scaling is widely used in studies of the biomechanics and energetics of animal flight, for with empirical allometric relationships one can explore how different mechanical, physiological and ecological constraints change in importance with size and wing morphology. Allometry can also be used to obtain a general norm for a morphological or physiological variable for a group of animals allowing the identification of deviations from the norm that may indicate adaptations to different biological niches and/or habitats. Chapter 3 discussed allometric relationships between various physiological characters and body mass, and here the theoretical basis, with empirical scaling data is given.


Flight Speed Geometric Similarity Wing Area Wing Loading Flight Mode 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulla M. Norberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Division of ZoomorphologyUniversity of GöteborgGöteborgSweden

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