Dynamic Wall Pressure Measurements

  • Patrick Leehey
Part of the Lecture Notes in Engineering book series (LNENG, volume 45)


The quest for information on the dynamics of wall pressure fluctuations has been motivated by two principle objectives. The first is to gain more fundamental understanding of the turbulent boundary layer, in particular, the mechanism by which it continually regenerates itself. The wall pressure measurement has the advantage of being, for the most part, non-invasive. On the other hand, it is a weighted integral of the velocity fluctuations in the boundary layer, hence, its picture of boundary layer activity must of necessity be somewhat diffuse. Pressure measurements have been combined with other measurements, in particular, fluctuating velocity and fluctuating wall shear stress. These have taken the form of long-time averages, such as in cross-correlation and cross-spectral density measurements. Short time conditional average measurements have also been taken wherein one or the other of the physical quantities has served as the trigger. A blend of the two techniques has been employed in measuring wall pressure fluctuations in the transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow. The pressure measurement is today an integral part of any serious experimental study of boundary layer dynamics.


Wall Shear Stress Turbulent Boundary Layer Wall Pressure Acoustic Radiation Wavenumber Spectrum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bergeron, R.F. (1973) “Aerodynamic sound and the low wavenumber wall pressure spectrum of nearly incompressible boundary layer turbulence,” Jour. Acoust. Soc. Amer., Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 123–133.CrossRefMATHADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. Blake, W.K. (1969) “Turbulent boundary layer wall pressure statistics on smooth and rough walls,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Ocean Engineering, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  3. Blake, W.K. (1970) “Turbulent boundary-layer wall-pressure fluctuations on smooth and rough walls,” Jour. Fluid Mech., Vol. 44, Part 4, pp. 637–660.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Blake, W.K. (1983) “Differential pressure measurement,” Chapter 3 in Fluid Mechanics Measurements, (ed., R.J. Goldstein), Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Springer-Verlag, pp. 61–97.Google Scholar
  5. Bull, M.K. (1963) “Properties of the fluctuating wall-pressure field of a turbulent boundary layer,” NATO, AGARD Report No. 455.Google Scholar
  6. Bull, M.K. (1967) “Wall pressure fluctuations associated with subsonic turbulent boundary layer flow,” Jour. Fluid Mech., Vol. 28, pp. 719–754.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Bull, M.K. and A.S.W. Thomas (1976) “High frequency wall-pressure fluctuations in turbulent boundary layers,” Physics of Fluids. Vol. 19, No. 4, April, pp. 597–598.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Burton, T.E. (1973) “Wall pressure fluctuations at smooth and rough surfaces under turbulent boundary layers with favorable and adverse pressure gradients,” Acoustics & Vibration Lab. Report No. 70208–9, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  9. Burton, T.E. (1974) “The connection between intermittent turbulent activity near the wall of a turbulent boundary layer with pressure fluctuations at the wall,” Acoustics & Vibration Lab. Report No. 70208–10, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  10. Chang, Y.M. and P. Leehey (1979) “Acoustic impedance of rectangular panels,” Jour. of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 243–256.CrossRefMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Corcos, G.M. (1963) “The resolution of pressure in turbulence,” Jour. Acoust. Soc Amer, Vol. 35, pp. 192–199.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Corcos, G.M. (1967) “The structure of the turbulent pressure field in boundary layer flows,” Jour Fluid Mech „ Vol. 18, pp. 353–377.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Efimtsov, B.M. (1984) “Similarity criteria for the spectra of wall pressure fluctuations in a turbulent boundary layer,” Soviet Physics Acouc ics, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan.-Feb.Google Scholar
  14. Enmerling, R. (1973) “The instantaneous structure of the wall pressure under a turbulent boundary layer flow,” Max-Planck-Inst. Stromungsforsch. No. 56–1973.Google Scholar
  15. Farabee, T.M. and F.E. Geib, Jr. (1975) “Measurement of boundary layer pressure fields with an array of pressure transducers in a subsonic flow,” 6th Int. Cong. on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, 22–24 Sept., Ottawa, Canada; available as IEEE Publication 75CHO993-AES pp. 311–319 or DTNSRDC Report 76–0031.Google Scholar
  16. Ffowcs Williams, J.E. (1965) “Surface-pressure fluctuations induced by boundary-layer flow at finite Mach number,” Jour. Fluid Mech., Vol. 22, Part 3, pp. 507–519.CrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  17. Ffowcs Williams, J.E. (1982) “Boundary layer pressures and the Corcos model: a development to incorporate low-wavenumber constraints,” Jnur. Fluid Mech., Vol. 125, pp. 9–25.CrossRefMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Franklin, R.E. and J.M. Wallace (1970) “Absolute measurements of static-hole error using flush transducers,” Jnur. Fluid Mech, Vol. 42, Part 1, pp. 33–48.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Geib, F.E. and T.M. Farabee (1985) “Measurement of boundary layer pressure fluctuations at low wavenumber on smooth and rough walls,” David Taylor Naval Ship R & D Center Report No. 84–05/, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  20. Hajhariri, H. and T. Akylas (1985) “The wall-shear-stress contribution to boundary layer noise,” Physics of Fluids, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 2727–2729.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Hakkinen, R.J. and E.J. O’Neil (1967) “On the merging of uniform shear flows at a trailing edge,” Douglas Aircraft Co. Report DAC-60862.Google Scholar
  22. Howe, M.S. (1979) “The role of surface shear stress fluctuations in the generation of boundary layer noise,” Jour. of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 65, No. 2, p. 159.CrossRefMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Howe, M.S. (1987) “On the structure of the turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectrum in the vicinity of the acoustic wavenumber,” Proc. Royal Soc. London, Series A, No. 412, pp. 389–401.CrossRefMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Jameson, P.W. (1970) “Measurement of low wavenumber component of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure spectrum,” Bolt, Beranek & Newman, Inc. Report No. 1937.Google Scholar
  25. Jones, D.S. (1966) “Generalised Functions,” McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., London.MATHGoogle Scholar
  26. Kompenhans, J. (1976) “Das akustische Verhalten uberstromter Offnungen in Abhangigkeit von der Wandgrenzschicht eine experimentelle Untersuchung, Dissertation, Gottingen.Google Scholar
  27. Kompenhans, J. and D. Ronneberger (1980) “The acoustic impedance of orifices in the wall of a flow duct with a laminar or turbulent flow boundary layer,” AIAA Paper 80–0990, AIAA 6th Aeroacoustics Conference, 4–6 June, Hartford, Conn.Google Scholar
  28. Kraichnan, R.H. (1956) “Pressure fluctuations in turbulent flow over a flat plate,” Jour Acnust. Soc. Amer„ Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 378-Google Scholar
  29. Langeheineken, Th. and A. Dinkelacker (1978) “Wanddruckschankungen einer Ausgebildeten, Turbulenten Rohrstromung,” Fortschritte der Akustik, p. 391, VDE-Berlag.Google Scholar
  30. Leehey, P. (1988) “Structural excitation by a turbulent boundary layer: an overview,” Jour. of Vibration. Stress and Reliability in Design, Vol. 110, April, pp. 220–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lighthill, M.J. (1952) “On sound generated aerodynamically: I: General theory,” Proc. Royal Soc. London Series A„ No. 1107, Vol. 211, pp. 564–587.CrossRefMATHADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  32. Martin, N.C. (1976) “Wavenumber filtering by mechanical structures,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  33. Martin, N.C. and P. Leehey (1977) “Low wavenumber wall pressure measurements using a rectangular membrane as a spatial filter,” Jour. of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 95–120.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Martini, K., P. Leehey and M. Moeller (1984) “Comparison of techniques to measure the low wavenumber spectrum of a turbulent boundary layer,” Acoustics & Vibration Lab. Report No. 92828–1, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  35. Messiter, A.F. (1970) “Boundary-layer flow near the traling edge of a flat plate,” SIAM Jour. Appl. Math., Vol. 18, No. 1.Google Scholar
  36. Moller, J.C. (1987) “Measurement of wall shear and wall pressure downstream of a honeycomb boundary layer manipulator”, Engineer’s Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  37. Petri, S.W. (1987) “The response of line-stiffened fluid-loaded infinite elastic plates to convecting pressure fields,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Ocean Engineering, M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  38. Phillips, O.M. (1955) “Surface noise from a plane turbulent boundary layer,” Aero. Res. Council, London, No. 16, 963-F.M. 2099.Google Scholar
  39. Powell, A. (1960) “Aerodynamic noise and the plane boundary,” Jour, Acoust. Soc. Amer Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 982–990.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Ronneberger, D. (1972) “The acoustical impedance of holes in the wall of flow ducts,” Jour. of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 24, pp. 133–150.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Schewe, G. (1983) “On the structure and resolution of wall-pressure fluctuations associated with turbulent boundary-layer flow,” Jour. Fluid Mech„ Vol. 134, pp. 311–328.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Sevik, M. (1985) “Topics in Hydroacoustics,” Proceedings of IUTAM Symposium on Aero-and Hydroacoustics, Lyon, France, 3–6 July, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  43. Willmarth, W.W. and F.W. Roos (1965) “Resolution and structure of the wall pressure field beneath a turbulent boundary layer,” Jour. Fluid Mech, Vol. 22, pp. 81–94.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Willmarth, W.W. (1975) “Pressure fluctuations beneath turbulent boundary layers,” in Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif., Vol. 7, pp. 13–38.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Leehey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Room 3-264Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations