Update 1989 pp 15-23 | Cite as

Role of Neutrophils and Macrophages in Multiple Organ Failure

  • N. V. Christou
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 8)


In the late 1960s and early 1970s terms like “shock lung”, “Da Nang lung” and “Adult Respiratory Failure” became common in the literature and at rounds in the intensive care unit. Along with abnormalities in pulmonary function, there was renal failure and jaundice and a clinical syndrome was recognized which consisted of the following: persistent fever; tachycardia; high cardiac output associated with normal filling pressures and low peripheral resistance; tachypnea; requirement for ventilatory support; ileus; jaundice; necessity for dialysis. This clinical syndrome has come to be recognized and named Multiple Organ Failure (MOF). Subsequent to the initial report of MOF, it was suggested that the presence of MOF is indicative of occult sepsis which often leads to the recommendation for a laparotomy [1]. The precipitating factor(s) of MOF included shock, infection, massive trauma, burn injury and hematoma. MOF remains the predominant reason for both prolonged stay and death in the surgical intensive care unit. What was perceived as isolated organ failure, such as adult respiratory distress syndrome, is now seen as part of the systemic response to injury and repair. Sepsis has become the systemic inflammatory response due to invading microorganisms. What was once perceived as diagnostic of sepsis, has now been recognized after severe perfusion deficits and in the presence of continuing sources of dead and injured tissue.


Kupffer Cell Acute Phase Protein Acute Phase Response Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Surgical Intensive Care Unit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

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  • N. V. Christou

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