Advertisement

Colon Cancer

  • Mohammed Mohiuddin
  • Lydia Komarnicky
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

The annual incidence of new cancer cases in the United States is 930000, with large bowel cancer accounting for 45000 new cases in males, and 53000 in females. The annual estimated number of deaths from colon cancer is 51000 (24800 male, 27000 female) (SILVERBERG etal. 1986). There has been an increase in the incidence of cancer of the colon over the past several decades. In 1947 the age adjusted incidence rates were 25.1/100000 in males and 26.8/100000 for females; in 1973-77 the incidence was 36.9/100000 in males and 31.3/100000 in females. At the same time there has been a decline in the incidence of carcinoma of the rectum (DEVESA and SILVERMAN 1978). Over the age of 50, the incidence of large bowel cancer rises dramatically. In the 80-year age group, the male to female ratio is approximately 2.5 to 1. The incidence in the United States for colon cancer is higher than in most other countries (Devesa and Silverman 1978). In Japan, colon cancer is rarely seen, but the incidence rises sharply in immigrants from Japan, especially those people who change their dietary habits to those of the United States population (Haenszel and Kuri- hara 1968). Several clinical studies (Armstrong and Doll 1985; Reddy 1978; Sherlock 1986) in- dicate that environmental factors and diet are very important in the development of colon cancer.

Keywords

Colon Cancer Local Recurrence Curative Resection Transverse Colon Local Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anderson DE (1975) Familial susceptibility. In: Fraumeni JF Jr (ed) Persons at high risk of cancer. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Ansfield F (1975) A randomized phase III study of four dosage regimens of 5-FU, - a preliminary report. Proc Am Assoc Clin Oncol 67: 224Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong B, Doll R (1985) Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 15: 617–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astler VS, Coller FA (1954) The prognostic significance of direct extension of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Ann Surg 139: 846–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker LH, Matter R, Talley R, Vaitkevicius V (1975) 5-FU versus 5-FU and methyl-CCNU in gastrointestinal cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol16: 229Google Scholar
  6. Bateman J, Irwin L, Pugh Retal . (1975) Comparison of intravenous and oral administration of 5-fluorouracil for colorectal carcinoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 16: 242Google Scholar
  7. Brenner HJ, F. R. C. R., Bibi C, Chaitchik S (1983) Adjuvant therapy for Dukes C adenocarcinoma of colon. Int J Radiat Oncol BioI Phys 9: 1789–1792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Buroker T, Kim PN, Gropper C etal . (1978) 5-Fluorouracil infusion with mitomycin-C versus 5-fluorouracil infusion with methyl-CCNU in the treatment of advanced colon cancer: a SWOG study. Cancer 42: 1228–1233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carter SK, Friedman M (1987) Integration of chemotherapy into combined modality treatment of solid tumors II. Large bowel carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev 1: 111–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cass A W, Million RR, Pfaff WW (1976) Patterns of recurrence following surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. Cancer 37: 2861–2865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coller FA, Kay EB, Macintyre RS (1941) Regional lymphatic metastasis in carcinoma of the colon. Ann Surg 114: 56–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Devesa SS, Silverman DT (1978) Cancer incidence and mortality trends in the United States: 1935–1974. JNCI 60: 545–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dukes CE (1944) The surgical pathology of rectal cancer. Proc R Soc Lond 37: 131–144Google Scholar
  14. Duttenhaver J, Hoskins RB, Gunderson LL, Tepper JE (1986) Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy in the management of adenocarcinoma of the colon. Cancer 57: 955–963Google Scholar
  15. Dwight RW, Humphrey EE, Higgens GA etal . (1973) FUDR as an adjuvant to surgery in cancer of the large bowel. J Surg Oncol 5: 243–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Emami B, Pilepich M, Willett C, Munzenrider J, Miller H (1982) Effect of preoperative irradiation on resectability of colorectal carcinomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 8: 1295–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Engstrom P, MacIntyre J, Douglass H, Muggia F, Mittelman A (1982) Combination chemotherapy of advanced colorectal cancer utilizing 5-fluorouracil, semustine, dacarbazine, vincristine, and hydroxyurea. Cancer 49: 1555–1560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (1984) Adjuvant therapy of colon cancer: Results of a prospectively randomized trial. N Engl J Med 310: 737–743Google Scholar
  19. Ghossein NA, Samala EL, Alpert S etal . (1981) Elective postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete resection of a colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 24: 252–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gilchrist RK, David VC (1947) A consideration of pathological factors influencing five-year survival in radical resection of the large bowel and rectum for carcinoma. Ann Surg 126: 421–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grage TB, Moss SE (1981) Adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer of the colon and rectum: Demonstration of effectiveness of prolonged 5FU chemotherapy in a prospectively controlled randomized trial. Surg Clin North Am 61: 1321–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Grinnell RS (1939) The grading and prognosis of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Ann Surg 109: 500–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grinnell RS (1964) The chance of cancer and lymphatic metastasis in small colon tumors discovered on x-ray examination. Ann Surg 159: 132–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gunderson L, Russell A, Llewellyn H, Doppke K, Tepper J (1985 a) Treatment planning for colorectal cancer: Radiation and surgical techniques and value of small-bowel films. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 11: 1379–1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gunderson L, Sosin H, Levitt S (1985b) Extrapelvic colon - areas of failure in a reoperation series: Implications for adjuvant therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol BioI Phys 11: 731–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Haenszel WM, Kurihara M (1968) Studies of Japanese migrants: I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States. JNCI 40: 43Google Scholar
  27. Hahn RG, Moertel CG, Schmitt AJ (1975) A double blind comparison of intensive course 5-fluorouracil by oral versus intravenous route in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. Cancer 35: 1031–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Higgens GA, Lee LE, Dwight RW, Keehn RJ (1978) The case for adjuvant 5-fluorouracil in colorectal cancer. Cancer Clin Trials 1: 35–41Google Scholar
  29. Hoerner MT (1958) Carcinoma of the colon and rectum in persons under twenty years of age. Am J Surg 96: 47 - 53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoover H, Surdyke MG, Dangel R, Leona C, Hanna M (1985) Prospectively randomized trial of adjuvant activespecific immunotherapy for human colorectal cancer. Cancer 55: 1236–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kemeny N, Yagoda A, Braun D, Golbey R (1980) Therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer with a combination of methyl-CCNU, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine and streptozotocin (MOF-Strep). Cancer 45: 876–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kopelson G (1983 a) Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for colorectal carcinoma above the peritoneal reflection - sigmoid colon. Cancer 51: 1593–1598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kopelson G (1983 b) Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for colorectal carcinoma above the peritoneal reflection - antimesenteric wall, ascending and descending colon and cecum. Cancer 52: 633–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lavin P, Mittelman A, Douglass H etal . (1980) Survival and response to chemotherapy for advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma: an ECOG report. Cancer 46: 1536–1541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Loefler I, Hafner CD (1964) Survival rate in obstructing carcinoma of colon. Arch Surg 89: 716–718Google Scholar
  36. McGlone P, Bernie W, Elliott D (1982) Survival following extended operations in extracolonic invasion by colon cancer. Arch Surg 117: 595–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moertel CG (1979) Large bowel. In: Holland J, Frei LE (eds) Cancer medicine. Lea and Febeger, Philadelphia, pp 1597–16727Google Scholar
  38. Muto T, Bussey HJR, Morson BC (1975) The evolution of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer 36: 2251–2270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olson RM, Perencevich NP, Malcolm A W, Chaffey JT, Wilson R (1980) Patterns of recurrence following curative resection of adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. Cancer 45: 2969–2974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Posey LE, Morgan LR (1977) Methyl-CCNU versus methylCCNU plus 5-fluorouracil in carcinoma of the large bowel. Cancer Treat Rep 61: 1453–1458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Reddy BS (1978) c. In: Enker WE (ed) Carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Year Book Medical, Chicago, pp 326–343Google Scholar
  42. Romsdahl M, Withers HR (1978) Radiotherapy combined with curative surgery. Arch Surg 113: 446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Russell AH, Tong D, Dawson LE, Wisbeck WM, Griffin TW, Laramore GE, Luk KH (1959) Adenocarcinoma of the retroperitoneal ascending and descending colon: Sites of initial dissemination and clinical patterns of recurrence following surgery alone. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 9: 361–365Google Scholar
  44. Russell AH, Tong D, Dawson LE, Wisbeck W (1984) Adenocarcinoma of the proximal colon. Sites of initial dissemination and patterns of recurrence following surgery alone. Cancer 53: 360–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sanfelippo PM, Beahrs OH (1972) Factors in the prognosis of adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. Arch Surg 104: 401–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Seifert P, Baker L, Reed M, Vaitkevicius VK (1975) Comparison of conntinuously infused 5-fluorouracil with bolus injection in the treatment of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Cancer 36: 123–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shehata WM, Meyer RL, Krause RJ, Jazy FK, Cormier WF (1984) Postoperative adjuvant irradiation and 5-FU for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. Cancer 54: 2850- 2853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sherlock P (1986) Etiology of colorectal cancer. In: Bean DH, Higgins GA, Weinstein JJ (eds) Colorectal tumors. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  49. Silverberg E, Lubera J (1986) Cancer statistics, 1986. CA 57: 26Google Scholar
  50. Simanovsky M, Feldman M (1986) Adenocarcinoma of the cecum. Analysis of 106 cases. Cancer 58: 1766–1769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Spratt JS, Spjut HJ (1967) Prevalence and prognosis of individual clinical and pathologic variables associated with colorectal carcinoma. Cancer 20: 1976–1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Symonds DA, Vickery AL (1976) Mucinous carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Cancer 37: 1891–1900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Taylor FW (1962) Cancer of the colon and rectum: A study of routes of metastases and death. Surgery 52: 305–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Taylor I, Rowling J, West C (1979) Adjuvant cytotoxic liver perfusion for colorectal hospital. Br J Surg 66: 833–834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tong D, Russell AH, Dawson LE, Wisbeck WM, Griffin TW, Laramore GE, Luk KH (1959) Adenocarcinoma of the cecum: Natural history and clinical patterns of recurrence following radical surgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 9: 357–360Google Scholar
  56. Turnbull RB, Kyle K, Watson FR, Spratt J (1967) Cancer of the colon. Influence of the no-touch technic on survival rates. Am Surg 166: 420–425Google Scholar
  57. Turner S, Vierira EF, Ager PJ, Alpert S, Efron G, Ragins H, Weil P, Ghossein NA (1977) Elective postoperative radiotherapy for locally advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer 40: 105–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Willett C, Tepper JE, Cohen A, Orlow E, Welch C, Donaldson G (1983) Local failure following curative resection of colonic adenocarcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 10: 645–651Google Scholar
  59. Wong CS, Harwood AR, Cummings BJ, Keane TJ, Thomas GM, Rider WD (1985) Postoperative local abdominal irradiation for cancer of the colon above the peritoneal reflection. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 11: 2067–2071CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Mohiuddin
    • 1
  • Lydia Komarnicky
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Therapy and Nuclear MedicineThomas Jefferson University HospitalPhiladephiaUSA

Personalised recommendations