Advertisement

Medical Management of Gastrointestinal Cancer

  • Guillermo Ramirez
  • Paul P. Carbone
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)

Abstract

Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer includes a wide variety of malignancies, starting in the esophagus and ending at the other end of the GI tract, the anus. They are derived from the ectoderm, the mesoderm, or the entoderm and the histologies encompass many subtypes including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, small cell tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas. As a group they make up more than 25% of all new cancers and are responsible for 24.7% of all cancer deaths (SILVERBERG and LUBERA 1988). The various histologies in the several anatomic sites have distinct clinical features and responsiveness to systemic therapy. Surgery, which plays a major role in management of some GI cancers such as colon, has a lesser role in the management of hepatocellular or pancreatic cancers. These latter cancers tend to present with multicentric or far advanced disease that does not lend itself to surgical resection. Likewise, sensitivity to radiation therapy is quite varied.

Keywords

Gastric Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Esophageal Cancer Clin Oncol Advanced Gastric Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Refences

  1. Abe M, Takahashi M, Yabumoto E, Onoyama Y, Torizuka K, Tobi T, Mori K (1975) Techniques, indications and results of intraoperative radiotherapy of advanced cancers. Radiology 116: 693–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcobendas F, Milla A, Estape J etal . (1983) Mitomycin C as an adjuvant in resected gastric cancer. Ann Surg 198: 13–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Sarraf etal . (1974) Primary liver cancer: A review of the clinical features, blood groups, serum enzymes, therapy, and survival of 65 cases. Cancer 33: 574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ansfield FJ, Schroeder JM, Curreri AR (1962) Five years clinical experience with 5-fluorouracil. JAMA 181: 295–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ansfield FJ, Ramirez G, Davis HL etal . (1975) Further clinical studies with intrahepatic arterial infusion. Cancer 36: 2413–2417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ansfield FJ, Klotz J, Nealon T, Ramirez G etal . (1977) A phase III study comparing the clinical utility of four regimens of 5-fluorouracil. Cancer 39: 34–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Antman KH, Skarin AT, Mayer RJ, Hargreaves HK, Canellos GP (1979) Microangiopatic hemolytic anemia and cancer: A review. Medicine 58: 377–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Astler VB, Coller FA (1954) The prognostic significance of direct extension of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Ann Surg 139: 846–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beer M, Cocconi G, Ceci G etal . (1983) A phase II study of cisplatin in advanced gastric cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 19: 717–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Benjamin RS (1975) Clinical pharmacology of Adriamycin. Cancer Chemother Rep 6: 183–185Google Scholar
  11. Berg JW, Connelly RR (1979) Updating the epidemiologic data on pancreatic cancer. Semin Oncol 6: 275–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berman MM, Libbey NP, Foster JH (1980) Hepatocellular carcinoma: polygonal cell type with fibrous stroma - an atypical variant with a favorable prognosis. Cancer 46: 1448–1455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bertino JR, Mini E, Sobrero A (1984) Sequential methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of solid tumors. In: Kimura K, Fujii S, Ogawa M (eds) Fluopyrimidines in cancer therapy. Excerpta Medica, New York, pp 251–260Google Scholar
  14. Beutler B, Milsark IW, Cerami AC (1985) Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effects of endotoxin. Science 220: 869–871Google Scholar
  15. Bonadonna G, deLena M, Monfardini S etal . (1972) Clinical trial with bleomycin in lymphomas and in solid tumors. Eur J Cancer 8: 205–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Borden EC etal . (1980) Levamisole effects in primary and recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Second International Conference on Immunotherapy of Cancer: Present status of trials in man. p 16Google Scholar
  17. Borden EC (1984) Progress toward therapeutic application of interferons, 1979–1983. Cancer 54: 2770–2776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bosset J, Hurteloup P, Bontemas Petal . (1983) A phase II trial of bleomycin and cisplatin in advanced oesophagus carcinoma. Proceedings of the 13th International Cancer Congress, p 41 ( Abstract)Google Scholar
  19. Bourbeau 0, Sylvestre J, Levesque HP, Dussault RG, Bivin Y, Dobe S (1979) Computerized axial tomography and fine needle biopsy in surgery of the pancreas. Am J Surg 22: 29–37Google Scholar
  20. Bowden L (1972) Cancer of the pancreas. CA 22: 275–283Google Scholar
  21. Breedis C, Young G (1954) Blood supply of neoplasms in the liver. Am J Pathol 30: 969–977Google Scholar
  22. Brooks JR (1979) Operative approach to pancreatic cancer. Semin Oncol 6: 357–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bruckner HW, Lokich JJ, Stablein OM (1982) Studies of Baker’s antifol, methotrexate, and razoxane in advanced gastric cancer: A Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group report. Cancer Treat Rep 66: 1713 -1717Google Scholar
  24. Buncher CR (1980) Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer. In: Moossa AR (ed) Tumors of the pancreas. William and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 415–427Google Scholar
  25. Buroker T, Moertel CG, Fleming TR etal . (1985) A controlled evaluation of recent approaches to biochemical modulation for enhancement of 5-fluorouracil therapy in colorectal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 3: 1624–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Caballero GA, Ausman K, Quebbeman EJ (1985) Longterm, ambulatory, continuous intravenous infusion of 5-fluorouracil for treatment of advanced adenocarcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 69: 13–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cadman EC, Heimer R, Davis L (1979) Enhanced 5-fluorouracil nucleotide formation following methotrexate: biochemical explanation for drug synergism. Science 205: 1135–1137Google Scholar
  28. Cady B, Oberfield RA (1974) Regional infusion chemotherapy of hepatic metastases from carcinoma of the colon. Am J Surg 127: 220–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Carbone PP (1986) Advanced and adjuvant breast cancer therapy. In: Jordan VC (ed) Estrogen/antiestrogen action and breast cancer therapy. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp 484–497Google Scholar
  30. Carswell EA etal . (1975 a) Effect of tumor necrosis factor on cultured human melanoma cells. Nature 258: 31–32Google Scholar
  31. Carswell EA, Old U, Kassel RL etal . (1975 b) An endotoxininduced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 72: 366–367Google Scholar
  32. Carter SK (1975) The integration of chemotherapy into a combined modality approach for cancer treatment. VI. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev 2: 193–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ch’ ;ng JLC, Anderson JV, Williams SJ, Carr DH, Bloom SR (1986) Remission of symptoms during long term treatment of metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumours with long acting somatostatin analogue. British Med J 292: 982–983Google Scholar
  34. Chirigos MA, Amery WK (1978) Combined levamisole therapy: A overview of its protective effects. In: Terry WD, Rosenberg SA (eds) Immunotherapy of human cancer. Raven Press, New York, pp 181–196Google Scholar
  35. Chlebowski RW, Tong M, Weissman J etal . (1984) Hepatocellular carcinoma - diagnostic and prognostic features in North American patients. Cancer 53: 2701–2706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Clarkson B, O’ ;Connor A, Winston L, Hutchinson D (1964) The physiological disposition of 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine in man. Clin Pharmaool Ther 5: 581–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Comis RL, Carter SK (1974) A review of chemotherapy in gastric cancer. Cancer 34: 1576–1586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Craig JR, Peters RL etal . (1980) Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver: a tumor of adolescents and young adults with distinctive clinicopathologic features. Cancer 46: 372–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Crile G Jr (1970) The advantages of bypass procedures over radical pancreatoduodenectomy in the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma. Surg Gyneool Obstet 130: 1049–1053Google Scholar
  40. Crooke ST, Bradner WT (1976) Mitomycin C: a review. Cancer Treat Rev 3: 121–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cullinan SA, Moertel CG, Fleming TR etal . (1985) A comparison of chemotherapeutic regimens in the treatment of advanced pancreatic and gastric carcinoma. Fluorouracil vs. fluorouracil and doxorubicin vs. fluorouracil, doxorubicin and mitomycin. JAMA 253: 2061–2067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Davis HL, Ramirez G, Ansfield FJ (1974) Adenocarcinomas of stomach, pancreas, liver and biliary ducts. Cancer 33: 193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. DeBessi P, Salvagno L, Endrizzi L etal . (1984) Cisplatin, bleomycin and methotrexate in the treatment of advanced oesophageal cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 20: 743–747Google Scholar
  44. Depeyster FA, Gilchrist RK (1969) Pathology and manifestations of cancer of the colon and rectum. In: Turrel R (ed) Diseases of the colon and. anorectum. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 428–452Google Scholar
  45. Di Biscegile AM, Rustgi VK, Hoofnagle JH etal . (1988) Hepatocellular carcinoma-NIH conference. Ann Intern Med 108: 390–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. DiMarco A (1975) Adriamycin (NSC-123127): Mode and mechanism of action. Cancer Chemother Rep 6: 91–106Google Scholar
  47. DiMarco A, Gaetani M, Orezzi P etal . (1963) Antitumor activity of a new antibiotic: daunomycin. Communications 3rd international congress of chemistry, 22–27 July 1963Google Scholar
  48. Dobelbower RR (1979) The radiotherapy of pancreatic cancer. Semin Oncol 6: 378–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dobelbower RR, Abe M (1989) Intraoperative radiation therapy, CRC, Boca Raton, in pressGoogle Scholar
  50. Douglass HO, Lavin PT, Goudsmit A, Klaassen DJ, Paul AR (1984) An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group evaluation of combinations of methyl-CCNU, mitomycin C, adriamycin, and 5-fluorouracil in advanced measurable gastric cancer (EST 2277). J Clin Oncol 2: 1372–1381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dukes CE (1932) The classification of cancer of the rectum. J Pathol35: 323–332Google Scholar
  52. Earl HM, Coombes RC, Schein PS (1984) Cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer ofthe stomach. Clin Oncol3: 351–369Google Scholar
  53. Eaton SB, Fleischli DJ, Polard JJ, Nebesar RA, Potsaid MS (1968) Comparison of current radiologic approaches to the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. N Engl J Med 279: 389–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Eckhardt S (1979) Chemotherapy of primary liver cancer. J Toxicol Environ Health 5: 359–400Google Scholar
  55. Ellis FH, Gibb SP (1979) Esophagectomy for carcinoma: Current hospital mortality and morbidity rates. Ann Surg 190:699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Eloesser I (1937) The treatment of some abdominal cancers by irradiation through the open abdomen combined with cautery excision. Ann Surg 106: 645–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Engsminger W, Rosowsky A, Raso V etal . (1978) A clinicalpharmacologic evaluation of hepatic arterial infusions of 5-fluoro-2’ deoxuridine and 5-fluorouracil. Cancer Res 38: 3784–3792Google Scholar
  58. Engstrom P, Macintyre J etal . (1978) Combination chemotherapy of advanced bowel cancer. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res and Am Soc Clin Oncol 19: 384Google Scholar
  59. Engstrom PF, Lavin P, Douglass HO Jr (1981) Adjuvant therapy of gastric carcinoma using 5-fluorouracil (5FU) plus semustine (me-CCNU): a preliminary report. In: Gerard A (ed) Progress and Perspectives in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 31–35Google Scholar
  60. Engstrom P, Lavin P, Kalssen D (1983) Phase II evaluation of mitomycin and cisplatin in advanced esophageal carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 67: 713–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Engstrom PF, Lavin PT, Douglass HO Jr, Brunner KW (1985) Postoperative adjuvant 5-fluorouracil plus methyl-CCNU therapy for gastric cancer patients. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study (EST 3275). Cancer 55: 1868–1873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. ETORC/Clinical Screening Group (1970) Study of the clinical efficacy of bleomycin in human cancer. B Med J 2: 643–645Google Scholar
  63. Ezdinli EZ, Gelber R, Desai D, Falkson G etal . (1980) Chemotherapy of advanced esophageal carcinoma: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group experience. Cancer 46: 2149–2153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Faintuch K, Shepard KV, O’ ;Laughlin K etal . (1985) Toxicity of continuous infusion of 5-FU. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 4:92Google Scholar
  65. Fisher B, Wollmark N, Rockette H, Redmond C etal . (1988) Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy for rectal cancer: results from NSABP protocol R-O1. JNCI 80: 21–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Forestiere A, Patel H, Hankins J etal . (1983) Cisplatin, bleomycin and VP-16–213 in combination for epidermoid carcinoma of the esophagus. Proceed ASCO 2: 123Google Scholar
  67. Forrest JF, Longmire WP (1978) Carcinoma of the pancreas and periampullary region. Ann Surg 189: 129–138Google Scholar
  68. Foster JH (1978) Survival after liver resection for secondary tumors. Am J Surg 135: 389–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Freeny PC, Ball TJ (1981) Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) in the evaluation of suspected pancreatic carcinoma: Diagnostic limitations and contemporary roles. Cancer 47: 166–1678Google Scholar
  70. Frei E III, Freireich EJ (1965) Progress and perspectives in the chemotherapy of acute leukemia. Adv Chern other 2: 269–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Frei E III, DeVitae BT, Moxley JH III, Carbone PP (1966) Approaches to improving the chemotherapy of Hodgkin’ ;s disease. Cancer Res 26: 1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Frei E III, Luce JK, Gamble JE etal . (1973) Combination chemotherapy in advanced Hodgkin’ ;s disease: Induction and maintenance of remission. Ann Intern Med 79: 376–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Friesen SR (1982) The APUD syndromes. Prog Clin Cancer 8: 75–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ganda OP, Weir GC, Soelner JS, Legg MA etal . (1977) “Somastimoma”: a somatostatin-containing tumor of the endocrine pancreas. N Engl J Med 296: 963–967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (1982) Controlled trial of adjuvant chemotherapy following curative resection for gastric cancer. Cancer 49: 1116–2Google Scholar
  76. Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (1984 a) Randomized study of combination chemotherapy in unresectable gastric cancer. Cancer 53: 13–17Google Scholar
  77. Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (1984 b) Adjuvant therapy of colon cancer. Results of a prospectively randomized trial. N Engl J Med 310 (12): 737 -743Google Scholar
  78. Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (1985) Prolongation of the disease-free interval in surgically treated rectal carcinoma. Cancer 53: 13–17Google Scholar
  79. Gisselbrecht C, Calvo F, Mignot Letal . (1983) Fluorouracil, Adriamycin and cisplatin combination chemotherapy of advanced esophageal carcinoma. Cancer 52: 974–977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Grage TB, Moss SE etal . (1981) Adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer of the colon and rectum: demonstration of effectiveness of prolonged 5-FU chemotherapy in a prospectively controlled, randomized trial. Surg Clin North Am 61: 1321–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Grage TB, Vassilopoulos PP, Shingelton WW etal . (1979) Result of a prospective randomized study of hepatic artery infusion with 5-fluorouracil versus intravenous 5-fluorouracil in patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: A Central Oncology Group study. Surgery 86: 550–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Grinnell RS (1950) The spread of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Cancer 3: 641–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Grossi CE, Nealon TF, Rouselot AM (1972) Adjuvant chemotherapy in resectable cancer of the colon and rectum. Surg Clin North Am 52: 925–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gyves JW, Ensminger WD, van Harken 0 etal . (1983) Improved regional selectivity of hepatic arterial mitomycin by starch microspheres. Clin Pharmacol Ther 34: 259–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hanna MG, Peters LC (1981) Morphologic and functional aspects of active specific immunotherapy of established pulmonary metastases in guinea pigs. Cancer Res 41: 4001–4009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Harmon WE, Cohen HJ, Schneeberger EE, Grupe WE (1979) Chronic renal failure in children treated with methyl CCNU. N Engl J Med 300: 1200–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Harvey JH, Smith FP, Schein PS (1984) 5-Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and doxorubicin (FAM) in carcinoma of the biliary tract. J Clin Oncol 2 (11): 1245–1248Google Scholar
  88. Heidelberger C, Chandhari NK etal . (1957) Fluorinated pyrimidines; a new class of tumor inhibitory compounds. Nature 179: 663–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hellerstein S, Rosen S, Kies M etal . (1983) Diamminedichloroplatinum and 5-FU combined chemotherapy of epidermoid esophageal cancer. Proceed ASCO 2: 127Google Scholar
  90. Herlyn M, Blaszczyk M, Sears HF, Verrill H etal . (1983) Detection of a carcinoembryonic antigen and related antigens in sera of patients with gastrointestinal tumors using monoclonal antibodies in double determinant radioimmunoassays. Hybridoma 2: 329–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Higgins GA Jr, Humphrey E, Juler GL etal . (1976) Adjuvant chemotherapy in the surgical treatment of large bowel cancer. Cancer 38: 1461–1467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Higgins GA, Amadeo JH, Smith DE, Humphrey EW, Keehn RJ (1983) Efficacy of prolonged intermittent therapy with combined 5-FU and methyl-CCNU following resection for gastric carcinoma. A Veterans Administration Surgical Oncology Group report. Cancer 52: 1105–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hohn 0, Melnick J, Stagg R etal . (1985) Biliary sclerosis in patients receiving hepatic arterial infusions of floxuridine. J Clin Oncol 3: 98–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Holyoke ED (1981) New surgical approaches to pancreatic cancer. Cancer 47: 1719–1723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hoover HC Jr, Peters LC, Brandhorst JS, Hanna MG Jr (1981) Therapy of spontaneous metastases with an autologous tumor vaccine in a guinea pig model. J Surg Res 30: 409–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hoover HC Jr, Surdyke MG, Dangel RB etal . (1985) Prospective randomized trial of adjuvant active-specific immunotherapy for human colorectal cancer. Cancer 55: 1236–1243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hurley JD, Ellison EH etal . (1960) Chemotherapy of solid carcinomas - Indications, agents and results. JAMA 174: 1696–1701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ihde DC, Matthews MJ, Makuch RW etal . (1985) Prognostic factors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving systemic chemotherapy - Identification of two groups of patients with prospects for prolonged survival. Am J Med 78: 399–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Inokuchi K, Hattori T, Taguchi T, Abe 0, Ogawa N (1984) Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric carcinoma. Analysis of data on 1805 patients followed for 5 years. Cancer 53: 2393–2397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Jacobsson F (1961) The Paterson-Kelly (Plummer-Vinson) syndrome and carcinoma of the esophagus. In: Tanner NC, Smithers OW (eds) Neoplastic diseases at various sites, vol 4. Tumors of the oesophagus. Livingston, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  101. Joske RA, Benedict EB (1959) The role of benign esophageal obstruction in the development of carcinoma of the esophagus. Gastroenterology 36: 749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kaplan RS, Wiernik P (1982) Neurotoxicity of antineoplastic drugs. Semin Oncol 9: 103–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kelsen 0 (1984) Chemotherapy of esophageal cancer. Semi Oncol 11: 159–168Google Scholar
  104. Kelsen KP, Cvitkovic E, Bains M etal . (1978) Cis-diamminedichlros platinum (11) and bleomycin in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 62: 1041–1046PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kelsen 0, Hilaris B, Coonley C, Chapman R, Lesser M etal . (1983 a) Cisplatin, vindesine, and bleomycin chemotherapy of local-regional and advanced esophageal carcinoma. Amer J Med 75: 645–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kelsen DP, Coonley C, Hilaris B etal . (1983 b) Cisplatin, vindesine and bleomycin combination chemotherapy of local-regional and advanced esophageal carcinoma. Amer J M 75: 639–652Google Scholar
  107. Kelsen DP, Coonley C, Bains M etal . (1983 c) Cisplatin, vindesine and methyl-glyoxal bis (quanylhydrazone) combination chemotherapy of esophageal cancer. Proceed ASCO 2: 128Google Scholar
  108. Kelsen 0, Bains M, Hilaris B, Martini N (1984) Combinedmodality therapy of esophageal cancer. Seminars in Oncology 11: 169–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kemeny N, Yagoda A etal . (1979) A randomized study of two different schedules of methyl-CCNU, 5-FU +vincristine for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Cancer 43: 78–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kemeny N, Yagoda A etal . (1980) Therapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma with a combination of methyl-CCNU, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine and streptozotocin. Cancer 45: 876–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kemeny N, Daly J, Oderman Petal . (1984) Hepatic artery pump infusion: Toxicity and results in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2: 595–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kemeny N, Daly J, Reichman B, Geller N etal . (1987) Intrahepatic or systemic infusion of fluorodeoxyuridine in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer - a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 107: 459–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kennedy BJ, Theologides A (1961) The role of 5-fluorouracil in malignant disease. Ann Int Med 55: 719–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kew MC (1981) Clinical, pathological, and etiological heterogeneity in hepatocellular carcinoma. Evidence from Southern Africa. Hepatology 1: 366–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kirklin JW, Dockerty MB, Waugh JM (1949) The role of the peritoneal reflection in the prognosis of carcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid colon. Surg Gynecol & Obstet 88: 326–331Google Scholar
  116. Klaassen DJ, MacIntyre JM, Catton GE etal . (1985) Treatment of locally unresectable cancer of the stomach and pancreas: A randomized comparison of 5-fluorouracil alone with radiation plus concurrent and maintenance 5-fluorouracil - An Eastern Cooperative Group study. J Clin Oncol 3: 373–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Klavins JV (1981) Tumor markers of pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer 47: 1597–1601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kolaric K, Moricic Z, Dujmovic I etal . (1976) Therapy of advanced esophageal cancer with bleomycin, irradiation and combination bleomycin and irradiation. Tumor 62: 255–262Google Scholar
  119. Kolaric K, Maricic Z, Roth A etal . (1980) Combination of bleomycin and Adriamycin with and without radiation in the treatment of inoperable esophageal cancer. Cancer 45: 2265–2273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kopelson G, Harisiadis L, Tretter P etal . (1977) The role of radiation therapy in cancer of the extra-hepatic biliary system. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 2: 883–894Google Scholar
  121. Kovach JS, Moertel CG, Schutt AJ etal . (1974) A controlled study of combined 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and 5-fluorouracil therapy for advanced gastric and pancreatic cancer. Cancer 33: 563–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Krain LS (1970) The rising incidence of the pancreas - real or apparent? J Surg Oncol2: 115–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Kvale D, Rognum TO, Brandtzaeg P (1987) Elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulins A and M in serum of patients with large bowel carcinoma indicate liver metastasis. Cancer 59: 203–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kvols LK, Moertel CG, O’ ;Connei MJ etal . (1986) Treatment of the malignant carcinoid syndrome - Evaluation of a long-acting somatostatin analogue. N Engl J Med 315: 663–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Laurie J, Moertel C, Heming T etal . (1986) Surgical adjuvant therapy of poor prognosis colorectal cancer with levamisole alone or combined levamisole and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 5: 81Google Scholar
  126. Lavin P, Mittelman A etal . (1980) Survival and response to chemotherapy for advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group report. Cancer 46: 1536–1543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Lavin PT, Bruckner HW, Plaxe SC (1982) Studies in prognostic factors relating to chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancerPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Leichman L, Steiger Z, Seydel HG, Dindogru A, Kinzie J etal . (1984 a) Preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy for patients with cancer of the esophagus: A potentially curative approach. J Clin Oncol2: 75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Leichman L, Steiger Z, Seydel HG, Vaitkevicius VK (1984 b) Combined preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer of the esophagus: The Wayne State University, Southwest Oncology Group and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group experience. Semin Oncol 11: 178–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Levin DL, Devesa SS, Goodwin JD II, Silverman DT (1974) Cancer rates risks, 2nd edn. National Institutes of Health, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  131. Li MC, Ross ST (1976) Chemoprophylaxis for patients with colorectal cancer: prospective study with five-year follow-up. JAMA 235: 2825–2828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lin TY (1976) Recent advances in technique of hepatic lobectomy and results of surgical treatment for primary carcinoma of the liver. Prog Liv Dis 5: 668–682Google Scholar
  133. Loehrer PJ Sr, Williams SD, Einhorn LH, Ansari R (1985) Ifosfamide: an active drug in the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. J Clin Oncol3: 367–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Lokich JJ, Skarin AT (1972) Combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU; NSC’ ;19893) and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU; NSC’ ;409962) for disseminated gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Chemother Rep 56: 653–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lokich J, Bothe A, Fine N etal . (1981) Phase I study of protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil. Cancer 48: 2565–2568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. London WT (1981) Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - etiology, pathogenesis, and prevention. Hum Pathol 12: 1085–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lopez M, Perno CF, DiLauro L, Papaldo P (1984) 5-Fluorouracil, adriamycin, and BCNU (FAB) combination chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 12: 194–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. MacDonald JS, Schein PS, Woolley PV, Smythe T, Ueno W etal . (1980) 5-Huorouracil, doxorubicin, and mitomycin (FAM) combination chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Ann Intern Med 93: 533–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Machover D, Goldscmidt E etal . (1986) Treatment of advanced colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas with 5-FU and high dose folinic acid. J Clin Oncol 4: 685–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Madajewicz S, Petrelli N, Rustum Y etal . (1984) Phase I-II trial of high-dose calcium leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil in advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 44: 4667–4669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Magnani JL, Steplewski Z, Koprowski H, Ginsberg V (1983) Identification of the gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancerassociated antigen detected by monoclonal antibody 19–9 in the sera of patients as mucin. Cancer Res 43: 5489–5492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Major PP, Egan E, Herrick D, Kufe DW (1982) 5-Huorouracil incorporation in DNA of human breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 42: 3005–3009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Mandel HG (1969) Incorporation of 5-fluorouracil into RNA and its molecular consequences. Prog Mol Subcell Bioi 1: 82–135Google Scholar
  144. Marks IN, Bank S, Louw JH (1967) Islet cell tumor of the pancreas with reversible water diarrhea and achlorhydria. Gastroenterology 52: 695–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Matsumoto KK, Peter JB, Schultze RJ, Hakim AA, Franck PT (1966) Watery diarrhea and hypokalemia associated with pancreatic islet cell adenoma. Gastroenterology 50: 231–242Google Scholar
  146. Mavligit GM, Burgess MA, Gutterman JU etal . (1976) Prolongation of post-operative disease-free interval and survival in human colorectal cancer by BCG or BCG plus 5-fluorouracil. Lancet 1: 871–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. McCort JJ (1952) Radiographic identification of lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the esophagus. Radiology 59: 694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Meeker WR, Sickle-Santanello BJ, Philpott G etal . (1986) Combined chemotherapy, radiation and surgery for epithelial cancer of the anal canal. Cancer 57: 522–529Google Scholar
  149. Michaelson RA, Magill GB, Quan SH etal . (1983) Preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the management of anal epidermoid carcinoma. Cancer 51: 390–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Minton JP, Hoehn JL, Gerber DM etal . (1985) Results of a 400-patient carcinoembryonic antigen second-look colorectal cancer study. Cancer 55: 1284–1290Google Scholar
  151. Moertel C, Schutt A, Reitemeier R etal . (1976 a) Therapy for gastrointestinal cancer with the nitrosoureas alone in drug combination. Cancer Treat Rep 60: 729–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Moertel C, Fleming T, O’ ;Connell M etal . (1984) A phase II trial of combined intensive course 5-FU, Adriamycin and cis-platinum in advanced gastric and pancreatic carcinoma. Am Soc Clin Oncol 3: 137 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  153. Moertel CG (1973) Therapy of advanced gastrointestinal cancer with the nitrosoureas. Cancer Chemother Rep 4: 27–34 [Suppl] Google Scholar
  154. Moertel CG (1976) Chemotherapy of gastrointestinal cancer. Clin Gastroenterol 5: 777–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Moertel CG, Childs DS, Reitemeier RJ, Colby MY, Holbrook MA (1969) Combined 5-fluorouracil and super-voltage radiation therapy of locally unresectable gastrointestinal cancer. Lancet 2: 865–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Moertel CG, Mittelman A, Bakemeier RF, Engstrom P, Hanley J (1976 b) Sequential and combination chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer. Cancer 38: 678–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Moertel CG, Frytak S, Hahn RG, the Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (1981) Therapy of locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: A randomized comparison of high dose (6000 rads) radiation alone, moderate dose radiation (4000 rads) + 5-fluorouracil, and high dose radiation + 5-fluorouracil. Cancer 48: 1705–1710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Mongue JJ, Jud SS, Gage RP (1964) Radical pancreatoduodenectomy: A 22-year experience with the complications, mortality rate, and survival rate. Ann Surg 160: 711–722Google Scholar
  159. Munoz N, Linsell A (1982) Epidemiology of primary liver cancer. In: Correa P, Haenszel W (eds) Epidemiology of cancer of the digestive tract. Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 161–195Google Scholar
  160. Murano R, Wunderlich D, Thor A, Lundy J etal . (1985) Definition by monoclonal antibodies of a repertoire of epitopes on carcinoembryonic antigen differentially expressed in human colon carcinomas versus normal adult tissues. Cancer Res 45: 5769–5780Google Scholar
  161. Myers CE, Diasio R, Eliot HM, Chabner BA (1976) Pharmacokinetics of the fluoropyrimidines: implications for their clinical use. Cancer Treat Rep 3: 175–183Google Scholar
  162. Naef AP, Savary M, Ozzello L (1975) Columnar-lined lower esophagus: An acquired lesion with malignant predisposition. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 70: 826–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Nagasue N, Inokuchi K etal . (1977) Serum alpha-protein levels after hepatic artery ligation and postoperative chemotherapy. Correlation with clinical status in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 40: 615–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Nakajima T, Fukami A, Takagi K, Kajitani T (1980) Adjuvant chemotherapy with mitomycin C and with a multi-drug combination of mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil and cytosine arabinoside after curative resection of gastric cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncoll0: 187–194Google Scholar
  165. Nakajima T, Takahashi T, Takagi K, Kuno K, Kajitani T (1984) Comparison of 5-fluorouracil with ftorafur in adjuvant chemotherapies with combined inductive and maintenance therapies for gastric cancer. J Clin Oncol 2: 1366–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Narsete T, Ansfield FJ, Wirtanen G etal . (1977) Gastric ulceration in patients receiving intrahepatic infusion of 5-fluorouracil. Ann Surg 186 (6): 734–736Google Scholar
  167. Neefe JR, Silgals R, Schein PS (1984) Minimal activity of recombinant clone. A interferon in metastatic colon cancer. J Biol Response Mod 3: 366–370Google Scholar
  168. Niederhuber J, Ensminger W, Gyves J etal . (1984) Regional hepatic chemotherapy of colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Cancer 53: 1336–1343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Nigro ND, Vaitkevicius VK, Buroker T, Bradley GT, Considine B (1981) Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal. Dis Colon Rectum 24: 73–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Oberfield RA, McCaffrey JA, Polio BS etal . (1979) Prolonged and continuous percutaneous intra-arterial hepatic infusion chemotherapy in advanced metastatic liver adenocarcinoma from colorectal primary. Cancer 44: 414–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. O’ ;Connell MJ (1985) Current status of chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic and gastric cancer. J Clin Oncol 3: 1032–1039Google Scholar
  172. O’ ;Connell MJ, Gunderson LL, Moertel CG, Kvols LK (1985) A pilot study to determine clinical tolerability of intensive combined modality therapy for locally unresectable gastric cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Bioi Phys 11: 1827–1831Google Scholar
  173. Oldham RK (1983) Monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol 1: 582–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Oldham RK, Smalley RV (1984) The role of interferon in treatment of cancer. In: Zoon KC, Noguchi PO, Liu TY (eds) Interferon research, clinical application and regulatory consideration. Elsevier, New York, pp 191–206Google Scholar
  175. Oldham RK, Morgan AC, Woodhouse CS etal . (1984) Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of cancer: Preliminary observations and future prospects. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacotherapy 1: 51–62Google Scholar
  176. Olson RM, Perencevich NP, Malcolm A W etal . (1980) Patterns of recurrence following curative resection of adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. Cancer 45: 2969–2974Google Scholar
  177. Olweny CLM, Toya T etal . (1975) Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with adriamycin - Preliminary communication. Cancer 36: 1250–1257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Order SE, Stillwagon GB, Klein JL etal . (1985) Iodine 131 antiferritin, a new treatment modality in hepatoma: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 3 (12): 1573–1582Google Scholar
  179. Oster MW, Theologides A, Cooper MR etal . (1982) fluorouracil (F)+Adriamycin (A)+mitomycin (M) (FAM) versus fluorouracil (F) + streptozotocin (S) + mitomycin (M) (FSM) in advanced pancreatic cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1: 90 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  180. Oswoll ES, Kiessling PJ, Patterson JR (1978) Interstitial pneumonia from mitomycin. Ann Intern Med 89: 352–355Google Scholar
  181. Papillon J, Mayer M, Montbarbon JF etal . (1983) A new approach to the management of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Cancer 51: 1830–1837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Parker EF, Marks RD Jr, Kratz JM, Chaikhouni A etal . (1985) Chemoradiation therapy and resection for carcinoma of the esophagus: short-term results. Ann Thorac Surg 40: 121–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Patt Y, McBride CM, Ames FC etal . (1987) Adjuvant perioperative hepatic arterial mitomycin C and floxuridine combined with surgical resection of metastatic colorectal cancer in the liver. Cancer 59: 867–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Paulino-Netto A, Dreiling DA, Baronofsky ID (1960) The relationship between pancreatic calcification and cancer of the pancreas. Ann Surg 5: 530–537Google Scholar
  185. Pearson JG (1977) The present status and feature potential of radiotherapy in the management of esophageal cancer. Cancer 39: 882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Pettaval J, Mortgenthaler F (1978) Protracted arterial chemotherapy of liver tumors. An experience of 107 cases over a twelve year period. In: Ariel 1M (ed) Progress in clinical cancer, vol 7. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 217–233Google Scholar
  187. Poleynard GD, Marty AT, Birnbaum WB etal . (1977) Adenocarcinoma in the columnar-lines (Barrett) esophagus. Arch Surg 112: 997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Putzki H, Student A, Jablonski M, Heymann H (1987) Comparison of the tumor markers CEA, TPA, and CA 19–9 in colorectal carcinoma. Cancer 59: 223–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Popkin J, Bromer R, Byrne R etal . (1983) Continuous 48-hour infusion of vindesine in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. Proceed 13th Internat’ ;l Cancer Congress, p 40Google Scholar
  190. Radigan LR, Glover JL, Shipley FF, Shoemaker RE (1977) Barrett esophagus. Arch Surg 112: 486–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Ramirez G, Ansfield FJ (1982) Chemotherapy of liver metastases. In: Weiss L, Gilbert HA (eds) Liver metastasis. Hall, Boston, pp 348–359Google Scholar
  192. Ramming K (1983) The effectiveness of hepatic artery infusion in treatment of primary hepatobiliary tumors. Semin Oncol 10 (2): 199–205Google Scholar
  193. Ravry M, Moertel CG, Schutt AJ etal . (1973) Treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract with bleomycin (NSC 125066). Cancer Chemother Rep 57: 493–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Reich SD (1979) Clinical pharmacology of mitomycin C. In: Carter SK, Crooke ST (eds) Mitomycin C: current status and new developments. Academic Press, New York, pp 243–250Google Scholar
  195. Richter GW (1965) Comparison of ferritins from neoplastic and nonneoplastic human cells. Nature 207: 616–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Rittgers RA, Steele G, Zamcheck N etal . (1978) Transient carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) elevations following resection for colorectal cancer: A limitation in the use of serial CEA levels as an indicator for second look surgery. JNCI 61: 315–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Rochlin DB, Shiner J, Langdon E etal . (1962) Use of 5-FU in disseminated solid neoplasms. Ann Surg 156: 105–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Rosenberg B, Van Camp L, Krigas T (1965) Inhibition of cell division in Escherichia coli by electrolysis products from a platinum electrode. Nature 205: 698–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Rosenberg SA, Lotze MT, Muul LM etal . (1985) A new approach to the therapy of cancer based on the systemic administration of autologous Iymphokine activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2. N Engl J Med 313: 1485–1492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Rosenberg SA (1986) Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using lymphokine activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds) Important advances in oncology. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  201. Rousselot LM, Cole DR, Grossi CE etal . (1972) Adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil in surgery for colorectal cancer: eight-year progress report. Dis Colon Rectum 15: 169–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sato Y, Fujiwara K, Ogata I etal . (1985) Transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma - benefits and limitations for unresectable cases with liver cirrhosis evaluated by comparison with other conservative treatments. Cancer 55: 2822–2825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Schein PS, DeVita VT Jr, Hubbard S etal . (1976) Bleomycin, Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (BACOP) combination chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced diffuse histiocytic lymphoma. Ann Intern Med 85: 417–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Schlom J, Weeks M (1985) Potential clinical utility of monoclonal antibodies in the management of human carcinomas. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds) Important advances in oncology. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 170–192Google Scholar
  205. Sears H, Mattis J, Herlyn D etal . (1984) Effects of monoclonal antibody immunotherapy on patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. J Bioi Response Mod 3: 138–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Serlin 0, Wolkoff JS, Amaded JM, Keehn RJ (1969) Use of 5-fluoro-deoxyuridine (FUDR) as an adjuvant to the surgical management of carcinoma of the stomach. Cancer 24: 223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Shepard KV, Levin B, Karl RC etal . (1985) Therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer with hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy using a subcutaneous implanted pump. J Clin Onc 3: 161–169Google Scholar
  208. Shoemaker RH, Curt GA, Carney DN (1983) Evidence for multidrug-resistant cells in human tumor cells populations. Cancer Treat Rep 67: 883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Silgals RM, Ahlgren JD, Neefe JR etal. (1984) A phase II trial of high-dose intravenous interferon alpha-2 in advanced colorectal cancer. Cancer 54: 2257–2261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Silverberg E, Lubera J (1986) Cancer Statistics, 1986. CA 36: 9–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Silverberg E, Lubera JA (1988) Cancer Statistics, 1988. CA 38: 5–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Sischy B, Remington JH, Sobel SH, Savlov ED (1980) Treatment of carcinoma of the rectum and squamous carcinoma of the anus by combination chemotherapy, radiotherapy and operation. Surg Gynecol Obstet 151: 369–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Sitzmann JV, Order SE, Klein JL, Leichner PK etal . (1987) Conversion by new treatment modalities of nonresectable to resectable hepatocellular cancer. J Clin Oncol 5: 1566–1573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Smith FP, Hoth DF, Levin B, Karlin DA, MacDonald JS, Woolley PV, Schein PS (1980) 5-Fluorouracil, Adriamycin, and mitomycin-C (FAM) chemotherapy for advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Cancer 46: 2014–2018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Smith GW, Bukowski RM, Hewlett JS, Groppe CW (1984) Hepatic artery infusion of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C in cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma. Cancer 54: 1513–1516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Sondel P, Hank J, Kohler PC (1987) The clinical potential of interleukin-2 (IL-2) for the treatment of neoplastic disease. Oncology 1: 41–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Sponzo RW, DeVita VT, Oliverio VT (1973) Physiologic disposition of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea (CCNU) and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(4-methyl cyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU) in man. Cancer 31: 1154–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Steiger Z, Franklin R, Wilson RF, Leichman L, Seydel H etal . (1981) Eradication and palliation of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical therapy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 82: 713–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Sternberg A, Petrelli N, Au J etal . (1984) A combination of 5-Fluorouracil and thymidine in advanced colorectal carcinoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol13: 218–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Stephens F (1973) Bleomycin - A new approach in cancer chemotherapy. Med J Aust 1: 1277–1283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Sullivan RD, Zurek WZ (1965) Chemotherapy for liver cancer by protracted ambulatory infusion. JAMA 194: 481–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Sullivan RD, Young CW, Miller E, Glatstein N etal . (1960) The clinical effects of the continuous administration of fluorinated pyrimidines (5-FU and 5-FUdR). Cancer Chemother Rep 8: 77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Tancini G, Bajetta E, Bonadonna G (1974) Terapia con bleomycin da sola o in associazione con methodtrexate nel carcinoma epidermoide dell’ esofago. Tumor 60: 65–71Google Scholar
  224. Taylor I, Rowling J, West C (1979) Adjuvant cytotoxic liver perfusion for colorectal cancer. Br J Surg 66: 833–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Taylor SG, Murthy AK, Showel JL, Caldarelli DD, Hutchinson JC Jr, Holinger LD, Kramer T, Kiel K (1985) Improved control in advanced head and neck cancer with simultaneous radiation and cisplatin/5-FU chemotherapy. Cancer Treat Rep 69: 93–939Google Scholar
  226. Terry WD, Rosenberg SA (Eds) (1982) Immunotherapy of human cancer. Elsevier, North HollandGoogle Scholar
  227. Turnbull RB (1970) Cancer of the colon - The five-and-tenyear survival rates following resection utilizing the isolation technique. Ann R Coli Surg Eng146: 243–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Tilson 0 (1974) Carcinoid syndrome. Surg Clin North Am 54: 409–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. V. A. Cooperative Surgical Adjuvant Study Group (1965) Use of Thio TEPA as an adjuvant to the surgical management of cancer of the stomach. Cancer 18: 291–297Google Scholar
  230. Verhaegen H, DeCree J, DeCook W etal . (1982) Levamisole therapy in patients with colorectal cancer. In: Terry WD, Rosenberg SA (eds) Immunotherapy of Human Cancer. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  231. Verner JV, Morrison AB (1958) Islet cell tumor and a syndrome of refractory watery diarrhea and hypokalemia. Am J Med 25: 374–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Verner JA (1969) Clinical syndromes associated with non-insulin producing tumors of the pancreatic islets. In: Demlin L, Ottenjann R (eds) Non-insulin Producing Tumors of the Pancreas. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 165–183Google Scholar
  233. Vogel S, Greenwald E, Kaplan B (1981) Effective chemotherapy for esophageal cancer with methotrexate, bleomycin and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (11). Cancer 48: 2555–2558Google Scholar
  234. Von Hoff DD, Reichert CM, Cuneo Retal . (1979 a) Demyelination of peripheral nerves associated with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (DDP) therapy. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 20: 91Google Scholar
  235. Von Hoff DD, Schilsky R, Reichert CM etal . (1979 b) Toxic effects of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) in man. Cancer Treat Rep 63: 1527–1531Google Scholar
  236. Waddell WR (1973) Chemotherapy for carcinoma of the pancreas. Surgery 74: 420–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Wallace S, Charnsangavej C, Carrasco CH, Bechtel W (1984) Infusion-embolization. Cancer 54: 2751–2765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Weese JL, Ramirez G (1986) An implantable pump for regional chemotherapy of hepatic metastases. Wisc Med J 85:33–37Google Scholar
  239. Weil C (1985) Gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors. Klinische Wochenschrift 63: 433–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Weiss AJ, Jackson LG, Carabasi R (1961) An evaluation of 5-fluorouracilin malignant disease. Ann Int Med 55: 731–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Weiss HD, Walker MD, Wiernik PH (1974) Neurotoxicity of commonly used antineoplastic agents. N Engl J Med 291: 75–81,127–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Weiss GR, Garnick MB, Osteen RT etal . (1983) Long-term hepatic arterial infusion of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine for liver metastases using an implantable infusion pump. J Clin Oncol 1: 337–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Weiss RB (1982) Streptozotocin: A review of its pharmacology, efficacy, and toxicity. Cancer Treat Rep 66: 427–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Whipple AO, Parsons WB, Mullins CR (1935) Treatment of carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Ann Surg 102: 763–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Wilder RJ, Allan FN, Power MH, Robertson HE (1927) Carcinoma of the islands of the pancreas. Hyperinsulinism and hypoglycemia. JAMA 89: 348Google Scholar
  246. Wittes R, Brescia F, Young CW (1975) Combination chemotherapy with disciamminedichloro platinum (11) and bleomycin in tumors of the head and neck. Oncology 32: 202–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Yagoda A, Mukherji B, Young C etal. (1972) Bleomycin, an antitumor antibiotic: clinical experience in 274 patients. Ann Int Med 77: 861–870Google Scholar
  248. Yamada T (1977) Early detection of gastric cancer. In: Hirayman T (ed) Epidemiology of stomach cancer: key questions and answers. WHO Collaborating Center for Evaluation of Methods of Diagnosis and Treatment of Stomach Cancer, Tokyo, Japan, pp 99–104Google Scholar
  249. Zollinger RM, Ellison EH (1955) Primary peptic ulcerations of the jejunum associated with islet cell tumors of the pancreas. Ann Surg 142: 709–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Zwelling LA, Kohn KW (1979) Mechanism of action of cisdichlorodiammineplatinum (II). Cancer Treat Rep 63 : 1439–1444PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guillermo Ramirez
    • 1
  • Paul P. Carbone
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Oncology, Wisconcsin Clinical Cancer CenterUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations