Spontaneous Condensation in Stationary Nozzle Flow of Carbon Dioxide in a Wide Range of Density

  • K. Bier
  • F. Ehrler
  • G. Theis
Conference paper
Part of the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics book series (IUTAM)


The onset and the progress of spontaneous condensation in a supersaturated, supersonic nozzle flow of carbon dioxide has been investigated by precise measurement of the static pressure along the nozzle axis. The supersaturation at the Wilson point, where condensation begins, has been determined for pressures from below the triple point up to about 90 per cent of the critical pressure. The Wilson lines of carbon dioxide, obtained from series of expansions performed with two nozzles of different divergence angle, are compared with results for two refrigerants, CF2 Cl2 and CHF2Cl, and for water vapour. For comparable flow geometry the Wilson lines of carbon dioxide and of the refrigerants are nearly identical in a normalized pressure-temperature diagram. For water vapour the supersaturation at the Wilson point is lower than for the non-associating substances.


Wilson Line Expansion Rate Stagnation Pressure Stagnation Temperature Rankine Cycle 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Bier
    • 1
  • F. Ehrler
    • 1
  • G. Theis
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Technische Thermodynamik und KältetechnikUniversität Karlsruhe (TH)Germany

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