Atoms and Atomic Orbitals

  • E. Amitai Halevi


Prefatory note: This chapter and the others in Part II have been written in as non-mathematical a style as the author could manage. The theoretical validity of the various statements made without formal proof can be checked in any of the many available texts on Quantum Chemistry [1, 2, 3]. The initiate, who may be tempted to skip this and the following chapter, is urged to skim through them anyway. To paraphrase Shakespeare’s Ulysses [8], “the author’s drift” may be nothing to “strain at” but his “position” may not be altogether “familiar”.


Atomic Orbital Boron Atom Mirror Plane Dipolar Field Symmetry Operation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J.W. Linnett: Wave Mechanics and Valency. Methuen, London 1960. A delightfully simple introduction to an inherently difficult subject.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    R. McWeeney: Coulson’s Valence, Third Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1975. The modern version of a didactic classic.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Several of the more recent Quantum Chemistry texts of intermediate difficulty are listed below: [4, 5, 6, 7].Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    H.F. Hameka: Quantum Theory of the Chemical Bond. Haffner, New York 1975.Google Scholar
  5. J.P. Lowe: Quantum Chemistry. Academic Press, New York 1978.Google Scholar
  6. R.L. Flurry, Jr.: Quantum Chemistry, an Introduction. Prentice-Hall, Englewood-Cliffs 1980.Google Scholar
  7. LN. Levine: Quantum Chemistry. Allyn and Bacon, Y. New York 1983.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    William Shakespeare: Troilus and Cressida, Act 3, Scene 3.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Most of the Group Theory required for this book can be found in Reference [5, Chap. 13] or Reference [6, Chap. 13].Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Several of the many available presentations of Group Theory for chemists are listed below in rough order of increasing difficulty: [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17].Google Scholar
  11. H.H. Jaffe and M. Orchin: Symmetry in Chemistry. Wiley, New York 1965.Google Scholar
  12. S.F. Kettle: Symmetry and Structure. Wiley, Chichester 1985.Google Scholar
  13. F.A. Cotton: Chemical Applications of Group Theory. Wiley, New York 1963.Google Scholar
  14. D.S. Schonland: Molecular Symmetry. Van Nostrand, London 1965.Google Scholar
  15. B.E. Douglas and C.A. Hollingsworth: Symmetry in Bonding and Spectra. Academic Press, London 1985.Google Scholar
  16. L.R. Hall: Group Theory and Symmetry in Chemistry. McGraw-Hill, New York 1969.Google Scholar
  17. R.M. Hochstrasser: The Molecular Aspects of Symmetry. Benjamin, New York 1966.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    See References [1,50, 51, 61] and - in particular - [62] in Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  19. E.P. Wigner: Group Theory. Academic Press, New York 1959, p.67.Google Scholar
  20. M.A. Melvin: Rev. Mod. Phys. 28, 18 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. W.A. Bingel: Acta Phys. Acad. Sci. Hungar. 51, 13 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    P. Murray-Rust, H.-B. Burgi and J.D. Dunitz: Acta. Cryst. A35, 703 (1979). A lucid exposition of the distinction between kernel and co-kernel in terms of distortional desymmetrization of a molecule in a crystalline environment. The Table of Kernels and Co-kernels in Appendix B was adapted from this paper.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    E.A. Halevi: J. Chern. Research (8), 1985, 206. A brief discussion of the application of kernels and co-kernels to the description of substitutional desymmetrization in the context of chirality and prochirality.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Amitai Halevi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryTechnion — Israel Institute of TechnologyTechnion City, HaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations