Cardiac Surgery for Cardiogenic Shock

  • P. L. Birnbaum
  • R. D. Weisel
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 6)


Despite recent advances in diagnosis, hemodynamic monitoring and operative techniques, patients in cardiogenic shock have a limited survival even after successful surgical repair. Cardiogenic shock is usually defined as cardiac failure characterized by a systolic pressure less than 90 mmHg, a cardiac index less than 2.0 L/min/m2, a urine output less than 20 ml/h, mental confusion and inadequate peripheral perfusion [1]. Most patients present with cardiogenic shock following an acute myocardial infarction either because of progressive ventricular dysfunction or because of a mechanical complication: a ventricular septal defect, papillary muscle dysfunction or rupture causing acute mitral regurgitation or rupture of the left ventricle. Patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy may also develop cardiogenic shock and heart transplantation may be the only therapeutic option. Circulatory assistance may provide a bridge to heart transplantation while waiting for a donor organ.


Acute Myocardial Infarction Mitral Regurgitation Cardiogenic Shock Ventricular Septal Defect Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Birnbaum
  • R. D. Weisel

There are no affiliations available

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