The Lipoprotein Family Concept: An Update

  • P. Alaupovic
Conference paper
Part of the Recent Developments in Lipid and Lipoprotein Research book series (LIPID)

Abstract

Since the early 1940s the classification of plasma lipoproteins has been based on their nonspecific physical properties such as hydrated density, size, and electric charge, and the operationally-defined lipoproteins have been considered to represent the fundamental chemical and metabolic entities of the lipid transport system [1]. However, more recently accumulated evidence has pointed out that this conceptual approach is untenable, because lipoprotein classes, defined by their physical properties, are both chemically and metabolically heterogeneous [2, 3]. In addition to hydrated density, size, and charge distribution, major operationally-defined lipoprotein classes are also heterogeneous with respect to their lipid/protein and apolipoprotein composition. The occurrence of apolipoproteins in non-equimolar ratios and the immunochemical patterns of non-identity or partial identity between at least some apolipoproteins have provided the crucial evidence that individual lipoprotein particles of the same density class cannot have the same apolipoprotein composition. Moreover, these findings have suggested that the operationally-defined lipoprotein classes consist of several distinct lipoprotein species rather than a single homogeneous lipid/protein complex [2,4,5]. The recently established kinetic heterogeneity of lipoprotein density classes [3, 6] is compatible with the occurrence of distinct lipoprotein particles within the operationally-defined lipoproteins.

Keywords

Cholesterol Hydrolysis Hydrated Albumin Lipase 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Fredrickson DS, Levy RI, Lees RS (1967) Fat transport in lipoproteins: an integrated approach to meachanism and disorders. N Engl J Med 276: 32–44, 44–103, 148–156, 215–226, 273–281Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alaupovic P (1982) The role of apolipoproteins in lipid transport process. La Ricerca Clin Lab 12: 3–21Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lippel K, Gianturco S, Fogelman A, Nestel P, Grundy SM, Fisher W, Chait A, Albers JJ, Roheim PS (1987) Lipoprotein heterogeneity workshop. Arteriosclerosis 7: 315–323Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alaupovic P (1984) The physiochemical and immunological heterogeneity of human plasma highdensity lipoproteins. In: Miller NE, Muller GJ (eds) Clinical and metabolic aspects of highdensity lipoproteins. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–45Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alaupovic P, Tavella M, Fesmire J (1987) Separation and identification of Apo B-containing lipoprotein particles in normolipidemic subjects and patients with hyperlipoproteinemias. Adv Exp Med Biol 210: 7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Packard CJ, Shepherd J (1985) Models and mechanisms in very low density lipoprotein metabolism. Eur J Clin Invest 15: 51–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alaupovic P (1986) Recent advances in metabolism of plasma lipoproteins: chemical aspects. Prog Biochem Pharmacol 4: 91–109Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alaupovic P, Koren E, McConathy WJ, Tavella M, Knight-Gibson C, Fesmire JD (1987) Immunochemical methods of isolating and characterizing Apo B-containing lipoproteins. In: Lippel K (ed) Proceedings of the Workshop on Lipoprotein Heterogeneity. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, pp 29–43. (NIH Publication No. 87-2646)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheung M, Albers JJ (1984) Characterization of lipoprotein particles isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography. Particles containing A-I and A-13 and particles containing A-I but not A-II. J Biol Chem 259:12201–12209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dashti N, Alaupovic P, Knight-Gibson C, Koren E (1987) Identification and partial characterization of discrete Apo B-containing lipoprotein particles produced by human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Biochemistry 26: 4837–4846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alaupovic P, Wang CS, McConathy WJ, Weiser D, Downs D (1986). Lipolytic degradation of human very low-density lipoproteins by human milk lipoprotein lipase: the identification of lipoprotein B as the main lipoprotein degradation product. Arch Biochem Biophys 244: 226–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang CS, Alaupovic P, Gregg RE, Brewer HB Jr (1987) Studies on the mechanism of hypertriglyceridemia in Tangier disease. Determination of plasma lipolytic activities, k1 values and apolipoprotein composition of the major lipoprotein density classes. Biochem Biophys Acta 920: 9–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Koren E, Alaupovic P, Lee DM, Dashti N, Kloer HU, Wen G (1987) Selective isolation of human plasma low-density lipoprotein particles containing apolipoproteins B and E by use of a monoclonal antibody to apolipoprotein B. Biochemistry 26: 2734–2746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barbaras R, Puchois P, Fruchart JC, Ailhaud G (1987) Cholesterol efflux from cultured adipose cells is mediated by LPA1 particles but not by LP-A-I:A-II particles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 142: 63–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van Tol A, van’t Hooft FM, van Gent T, Dallinga-Thie GM (1987) HDL subtractions, HDL receptors and HDL turnover. Adv Exp Med Biol 210: 15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Atmeh RF, Shepherd J, Packard CJ (1983) Subpopulations of apolipoprotein A-I in human highdensity lipoproteins. Their metabolic profiles and response to drug therapy. Biochim Biophys Acta 751: 175–188Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tavella M, Alaupovic P, Blankenhora D, Chin HP (1987) Specific effect of combined colestipol and niacin therapy on apolipoprotein B-containing particles. Arteriosclerosis 7: 494aGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Corder C, Tavella M, Alaupovic P (1987) Effect of gemfibrozil on discrete Apo B-containing lipoproteins in patients with type V hyperlipoproteinemia. Arteriosclerosis 7: 515aGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koren E, Puchois P, Alaupovic P, Fesmire J, Kandoussi A, Fruchart JC (1987) Quantification of two different types of apolipoprotein A-I qontaining lipoprotein particles in plasma by enzymelinked differential-antibody immunosorbent assay. Clin Chem 33: 38–43PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Alaupovic

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations