Elementary Excitations in Bose-Condensed Liquids and Gases at Finite Temperatures

  • A. Griffin
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 79)


The major goal of this article is to review what the field-theoretic analysis of Bose-condensed fluids (liquids and gases) tells us about the nature of the excitations, both above and below the superfluid transition temperature. At T = 0, this analysis was initiated by Bogoliubov in 1947 for a weakly interacting dilute Bose gas (WIDBG) and the resulting picture is discussed in all advanced textbooks on statistical mechanics. Much less well known are the dynamical properties of a WIDBG at intermediate temperatures (where the condensate fraction may be strongly depleted). While the field-theoretic analysis was formally extended by Beliaev in 1957 to deal with Bose liquids, it was only in the early seventies that one began to understand the somewhat subtle (but absolutely crucial) role that the Bose broken symmetry has on the nature of the elementary excitations in superfluid 4He. I have given a review [1] of certain aspects of resulting scenario at the Banff International Conference on Quantum Fluids and Solids. The present article may be viewed as part two of this account, with special emphasis on the nature of the elementary excitations in Bose fluids at finite temperatures, as well as their somewhat subtle relation to the density fluctuations [resonances in (\(S\left( {\overrightarrow {Q,w} } \right)\), ω)] which can be studied by inelastic scattering probes. I refer to my Banff article for more detailed references to the technical literature. I minimize the use of equations but rather try to describe in physical terms what the microscopic theory implies.


Finite Temperature Density Fluctuation Elementary Excitation Condensate Fraction Superfluid Density 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Griffin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsKyoto UniversitySakyo-ku, Kyoto 606Japan

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