Lymphatic System

  • H. Grosse-Wilde
  • U. W. Schaefer
Part of the Medical Radiology book series (MEDRAD)


Central roles of the immune system are to encounter, recognize, and destroy foreign soluble substances and particular microbes. Furthermore, the immune system has to discriminate between structures which belong to the body (self) and those which do not (nonself), and to regulate throughout life the dynamic process of immune responses. A third feature is the capacity of the immune system to learn and build up a memory with the consequence that a second encounter with a foreign structure results in an accelerated specific immune reaction (Nossal 1987). More recently a further field of responsibility was found for the immune system in its regulatory role in hematopoiesis and other differentiation processes (Sachs 1987).


Bone Marrow Transplantation Total Body Irradiation Allogeneic Bone Marrow Atomic Bomb Survivor Graft Versus Host Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agarossi G, Pizzi L, Mancini C, Doria G (1978) Radiosen- sitivity of the helper cell function. J Immunol 121: 2118–2121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiyama M, Yamakido M, Kobuke K, Dock DS, Hamilton HB, Awa AA, Kato H (1983) Peripheral lymphocyte response to PHA and T cell population among atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res 93: 572–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander P (1976) The bogey of the immuno-suppressive action of local radiotherapy. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1: 369–371Google Scholar
  4. Almassy Z, Krepinsky AB, Bianco A, Koteles GJ (1987) The present state and perspectives of micronucleus assay in radiation protection. A review. In: Applied radiation and isotopes. Int J Radiat Applic Instrument P. A, 38 (4): 241–249Google Scholar
  5. Amagai T, Kina T, Hirokawa K, Nishikawa S, Imanishi J, Katsura Y (1987) Dysfunction of irradiated thymus for the development of helper T cells. J Immunol 139: 358–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson KC, Weinstein HJ (1990) Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med 323: 315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson RE, Lefkovits I (1979) In vitro evaluation of radiation-induced augmentation of the immune response. Am J Pathol 97: 456–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson RE, Lefkovits I (1980) Effects of irradiation on the in vitro immune response. Exp Cell Biol 48: 255–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson RE, Warner NL (1975) Radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes. III. Effects of radiation on immunoglobulin production by B cells. J Immunol 115: 161–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Anderson RE, Warner NL (1976) Ionizing radiation and the immune response. Adv Immunol 24: 215–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson RE, Williams WL (1977) Radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes vs effects of whole body irradiation on numbers of recirculating T cells and sensitivation to primary skin grafts in mice. Am J Pathol 89: 367–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Anderson RE, Sprent J, Miller JPAF (1974) Radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes. I. Effect of irradiation on cell migration. Eur J Immunol 4: 199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Anderson RE, Olson GB, Autry JR, Howarth JL, Troup GM, Bartels PH (1977) Radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes. IV. Effect of whole body irradiation upon various lymphoid tissues and numbers of recirculating lymphocytes. J Immunol 118: 1191–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Anderson RE, Lefkovits I, Troup GM (1980) Radiation induced augmentation of the immune response. Con- temp Top Immunobiol 11: 245–274Google Scholar
  15. Anderson RE, Standefer JC, Tokuda S (1986) The structural and functional assessment of cytotoxic injury of the immune system with particular reference to the effects of ionizing radiation and cyclophosphamide. Br J Cancer 53 [Suppl VII]: 140–160Google Scholar
  16. Ashwell JD, Schwartz RH, Mitchell JB, Russo A (1986) Effect of gamma radiation on resting B lymphocytes. I. Oxygen-dependent damage to the plasma membrane results in increased permeability and cell enlargement. J Immunol 136: 3649–3656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Baral E, Blomgren H (1976) Response of human lymphocytes to mitogenic stimuli after irradiation in vitro. Acta Radiol Ther Phys Biol 15: 149–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barrett A (1988) Total body irradiation: clinical aspects. In: Bleehen NM (ed) Radiobiology in radiotherapy. Springer, London Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 123–127Google Scholar
  19. Bass H, Mosmann T, Strober S (1989) Evidence for mouse Th1- and Th2-like helper T cells in vivo. Selective reduction of Th1-like cells after total lymphoid irradiation. J Exp Med 170: 1495–1511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bauchinger M (1972) Strahleninduzierte Chromosomenaberrationen. In: Hug O, Zuppinger A (eds) Handbuch der medizinischen Radiologie, vol II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 127–180Google Scholar
  21. Bauchinger M (1984) Cytogenetic effects in human lymphocytes as a dosimetry system. In: Eisert WG, Mendelsohn ML (eds) Biological dosimetry. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Bazin H, Platteau B (1984) Immunohistological observations on the spleen B lymphocyte populations from whole body irradiated rats. Int J Radiat Biol 45: 321–329Google Scholar
  23. Beebe GW, Kato H, Land CE (1978) Mortality experience of atomic bomb survivors 1950–1974. Radiat Res 75: 138–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Behling UH (1983) The radioprotective effect of bacterial endotoxin. In: Nowotny A (ed) Beneficial effects of endotoxin. Plenum, New York, pp 127–135Google Scholar
  25. BenChetrit E, Gross DJ, Braverman A, Weshler Z, Fuks Z, Slavin S, Eliakim M (1986) Total lymphoid irradiation therapy in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 105: 58–60Google Scholar
  26. Berdjis CC (1971) Pathology of irradiation. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  27. Beschorner WE, Hutchins GM, Elfenbein GJ, Santos GW (1978) The thymus in patients with allogeneic bone marrow transplants. Am J Pathol 92: 173–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Beschorner WE, Yardley JH, Tutschka PJ, Santos GW (1981) Deficiency of intestinal immunity with graft- versus-host disease im humans. J Infect Dis 144: 38–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Betz EH (1974) Morphologische Veränderungen des lymphatischen Systems nach Bestrahlung. In: Kärcher KH, Streffer C (eds) Die Strahlenwirkung auf das Lymphsystem. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der kleinen Dosen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 29–36Google Scholar
  30. Bieber CP, Jamieson S, Raney A et al. (1979) Cardiac allograft survival in rhesus primates treated with combined total lymphoid irradiation and rabbit antithymocyte globulin. Transplantation 28: 347–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bier OG, Dias da Silva WD, Götze D, Mota J (eds) (1986) Fundamentals of immunology. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg, pp 401–440Google Scholar
  32. Birkeland SA (1978) In vitro radiosensitivity of human T and B lymphocytes evaluated using lymphocyte transformation tests and rosette formation tests. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 57: 425–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bloom ET, Korn EL, Tagasugi M, Toji DS, Onari K, Makinodan T (1983) Immune function in ageing atomic bomb survivors residing in the USA. Radiat Res 96: 399–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Button LN, DeWolf WC, Newburger PE, Jacobson MS, Kevy SV (1981) The effects of irradiation on blood components. Transfusion 21: 419–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Butturini A, Gale RP (1988) T cell depletion in bone marrow transplantation for leukemia: current results and future directions. Bone Marrow Transplant 3: 185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Calne R (1982) The initial study of the immunosuppressive effects of 6-mercaptopurine and a few words on cyclosporin A. World J Surg 6: 637–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Champlin RE, Gale RP (1984) Role of bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors: critical review of syngeneic, allogeneic, autologous, marrow stem cells. Int J Radiat Biol 38: 589–595Google Scholar
  38. Cirkovic D (1970) Protection by phytohemagglutinin of human blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro. Strahlentherapie 140: 318–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Congdon CC, Makinodan T, Gengozian N (1957) Effect of injection of rat bone marrow on reticular tissues of mice exposed to x-radiation in the midlethal dose range. J Natl Cancer Inst 18: 603–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Constine LS, Rubin P (1988) Total body irradiation: normal tissue effects. In: Bleehen NM (ed) Radiobiology in radiotherapy. Springer, London Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 95–121Google Scholar
  41. Cook SD, Devereux C, Troiano R et al. (1987) Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course. Ann Neurol 22: 634–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cooper M, (1987) B lymphocytes-normal development and function. N Engl J Med 317: 1452–1456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cosulich ME, Risso H, Canomia GW, Bargellesi A (1986) Functional characterization of a regulatory human T-cell subpopulation increasing during autologous MLR. J Immunol 57: 265–273Google Scholar
  44. Countryman P, Heddle J (1976) The production of micronuclei from chromosome aberrations in irradiated cultures of human lymphocytes. Mutat Res 41: 321–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Cudkowicz G, Bennet M (1971) Peculiar immunobiology of bone marrow allografts. I. Graft rejection by irradiated responder mice. J Exp Med 134: 83–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dehos G, Hinz G, Schwarz E-R (1986) Changes in number and function of the lymphocyte populations as a biological indicator for ionizing radiation. In: Kaul A, Dehos A, Bögl W, Hing G, Kossel F, Schwarz E-R, Stamm A, Stephan G (eds) Biological indicators for radiation dose assessment. Biologische Indikatoren zum Nachweis von Strahlenexpositionen. MMV Medizin, München, pp 298–301Google Scholar
  47. Dempster WH, Lennox B, Doag FW (1950) Prolongation of survival of skin homotransplantation in the rabbit by irradiation of the host. Br J Exp Pathol 31: 670–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dinarello CA, Mier JW (1987) Lymphokines. N Engl J Med 317: 940–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dixon FJ, McConahey PJ (1963) Enhancement of antibody formation by whole body x-radiation. J Exp Med 117: 833–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dixon FJ, Talmage DW, Maurer PH (1952) Radiosensitive and radioresistant phases in the antibody response. J Immunol 68: 693–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dixon FJ, Theofilopoulos AN, Izui S, McCapakey PJ (1980) Murine SLE - aetiology and pathogenesis. In: Fongereau M, Dausset J (eds) Progress in immunology IV Academic, London pp 959–995Google Scholar
  52. Drobyski W, Thibodeau S, Truitt RL et al. (1989) Third-party-mediated graft rejection and graft-versus- host disease after T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation, as demonstrated by hypervariable DNA probes and HLA-DR polymorphism. Blood 74: 2285–2294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dubois JB, Serrou B, Rosenfeld C (eds) (1981) Immuno- pharmacologic effects of radiation therapy. Monograph series of the European organization for research on treatment of cancer, vol 8. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Durkin HG, Thorbecke GJ (1972) Preferential destruction of germinal centers by prednisolone and x-irradiation. Lab Invest 26: 53–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Durum SK, Gengozian N (1978) The comparative radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol 34: 1–15Google Scholar
  56. Ekstrand KE, Dixon RL (1982) Lymphocyte chromosome aberrations in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol 27: 407–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Eltringham JR (1984) Effects of regional irradiation on immune responses. Clin Immunol Allergy 4: 359–376Google Scholar
  58. Farnsworth A, Wotherspoon JS, Dorsch SE (1988) Postirradiation recovery of lymphoid cells in the rat. Transplantation 46: 418–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fenech M, Morley AA (1985) Measurement of micronuclei in lymphocytes. Mutat Res 147: 29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Field EH, Strober S, Hoppe RT et al. (1983) Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation. Arthritis Rheum 26: 937–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Field EH, Engleman EG, Terrell CP, Strober S (1984) Reduced in vitro immune responses of purified human Leu-3 (helper/inducer phenotype) cells after total lymphoid irradiation. J Immunol 84: 1031–1035Google Scholar
  62. Finch SC (1984) Leukemia and lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors. In: Boice JD Jr, Fraumeni JF Jr (eds) Radiation carcinogenesis: epidemiology and biological significance. Raven, New York, pp 21–36Google Scholar
  63. Fuks Z, Strober S, Bobrove AM et al. (1976) Long-term effects of radiation on T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of patients with Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Invest 58: 803–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gale RP, Reisner Y (1986) Graft rejection and graft- versus-host disease: mirror images. Lancet I: 1468–1470Google Scholar
  65. Gerber M, Ball D, Michel F, Crastes de Paulet A (1985) Mechanism of enhancing effect of irradiation on production of IL-2. Immunol Lett 9: 279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Graham JB, Graham RM, Nori, Wright KA (1956) Enhanced production of antibodies by local irradiation. I. Measurement of circulating antibodies. J Immunol 76: 103–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gratwohl A, Hermans J, Lyklema A, Zwaan FE (1987) Bone marrow transplantation for leukaemia in Europe. Report from the Leukaemia Working Party 1987. Bone Marrow Transplantation 2 [Suppl 1]: 15–18Google Scholar
  68. Gray CM, Smit JA, Myburgh JA (1989) Function and numbers of natural killer (NK) cells in patients conditioned with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Transplant Proc 21: 1800–1801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gross UM, Herms J (1965) Das Verhalten des aktivierten Mäuselymphkotens nach Röntgenbestrahlung. Beitr Pathol Anat 131: 200–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Guedeney G, Grundwald D, Malarbet JL, Doloy MT (1988) Time dependence of chromosomal aberrations induced in human and monkey lymphocytes by acute and fractionated exposure to 60Co. Radiat Res 116: 254–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hakoda M, Akiyama M, Kyoizumi S, Awa AA, Yamakido M, Otake M (1988) Increased somatic cell mutant frequency in atomic bomb survivors. Mutat Res 201: 39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hall EJ (1988) Radiobiology for the radiologist. JB Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  73. Harris ED (1990) Rheumathoid arthritis. Pathophysiology and implications for therapy. N Engl J Med 322: 1277–1289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Harris G, Cramp WA, Edwards JC et al. (1985) Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune disease. Int J Radiat Biol 47: 689–699Google Scholar
  75. Hasegawa Y, Nakashima I, Ando K et al. (1988) Dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors in vivo assessed by change in the radiation sensitivity. Evidence for development of radiation-sensitive memory cells without clonal expansion. Scand J Immunol 28: 43–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Henney CS (1989) The interleukins as lymphocyte growth factors. Transpl Proc 21: 22–25Google Scholar
  77. Herberman RB, Ortaldo JR (1981) Natural killer cells: their role in defenses against disease. Science 214: 24–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Herbst M, Fritz H, Sauer R (1986) Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Radiol 59: 1203–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hogstedt B (1984) Micronuclei in lymphocytes with preserved cytoplasm. A method for assessment of cytogenetic damage in man. Mutat Res 130: 63–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hoppe RT, Fuks ZY, Strober S, Kaplan HS (1977) The long-term effects of radiation on T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood after regional irradiation. Cancer 40: 2071–2078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Huber R, Braselmann H, Bauchinger M (1989) Screening for interindividual differences in radiosensitivity by means of the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes. Radiat Environ Biophys 28: 113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hume DM, Wolf JS (1967) Modification of renal homograft rejection by irradiation. Transplantation 5: 1174–1191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. James SE, Arlett CF, Green MHL (1983) Radiosensitivity of human T-lymphocytes proliferating in long term culture. Int J Radiat Biol 44: 417–422Google Scholar
  84. Johnston A, McNerney R (1985) Changes in topoisomerase I activity after irradiation of lymphoid cells. Biosci Rep 5: 907–912Google Scholar
  85. Jordan SW (1967) Ultrastructural studies of spleen after whole body irradiation of mice. Exp Mol Pathol 6: 156–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kahan BD (1989) Cyclosporine. N Engl J Med 321: 1725–1738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kakati S, Kowalczyk JR, Gibas Z, Sandberg AA (1986) Use of radiation induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes as a biological dosimeter is questionable. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 22: 137–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kaplan HS (1980) Hodgkin’s disease, 2nd edn. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  89. Kataoka Y, Sato T (1975) The radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes in mice. Immunology 29: 121–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kato H, Schull WJ (1982) Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. Report 7. Mortality 1950–1978. Part I. Cancer mortality. Radiat Res 90: 395–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kiessling R, Hochman PS, Haller D, Shearer GM, Wigzell H, Cudkowicz G (1977) Evidence for a similar or common mechanism for natural killer cell activity and resistance to hemopoetic grafts. Eur J Immunol 7: 655–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. King DP, Strober S, Kaplan HS (1981) Suppression of the mixed leukocyte response and of graft-vs-host disease by spleen cells following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). J Immunol 126: 1140–1145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Knapp W, Dörken B, Rieber EP, Stein H, Gilks WR, Schmidt RE, Borne von dem AEGK (1989) Leucocyte typing IV. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  94. Kolar OJ, Homback NB (1986) Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis. Lancet II: 453Google Scholar
  95. Koretz S, Gottlieb MS, Strober S et al. (1981) Organ transplantation on mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Transpl Proc 13: 443–451Google Scholar
  96. Kotzin BL, Strober S (1979) Reversal of NZB/NZW disease with total lymphoid irradiation. J Exp Med 150: 371–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kotzin BL, Strober S (1984) Total lymphoid irradiation. Clin Immunol Allergy 4: 331–358Google Scholar
  98. Kotzin BL, Strober S, Engleman EG et al. (1981) Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation. N Engl J Med 305: 969–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kotzin BL, Kansas GS, Engleman EG et al. (1983) Changes in T-cell subsets in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total lymphoid irradiation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 27: 250–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kotzin BL, Strober S, Kansas GS, Terrell CP, Engleman EG (1984) Suppression of pokeweed mitogen stimulated immunoglobulin production. J Immunol 132: 1049–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lambert LE, Paulnock DM (1987) Modulation of macrophage function by gamma-irradiation - acquisition of the primed cell intermediate stage of the macrophage tumoricidal activation pathway. J Immunol 139: 2834–2841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Langendorff H, Langendorff M, Steinbach KH, Weckesser J (1971) Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur strah- lenresistenzerhöhenden Wirkung von verschiedenen bakteriellen Lipopolysacchariden. Strahlentherapie 141: 214–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lee SK, Woodland RT (1985) Selective effect of irradiation on responses to thymus-independent antigen. J Immunol 134: 761–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Leitman SF, Holland PV (1985) Irradiation of blood products: indications and guidelines. Transfusion 25: 293–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Levin B, Collins G, Waer M et al. (1985) Treatment of cadaveric renal transplant recipients with total lymphoid irradiation, antithymocyte globulin, and low-dose prednisone. Lancet II: 1321–1324Google Scholar
  106. Lloyd DC (1984) An overview of radiation dosimetry by conventional cytogenetic methods. In: Eisert WG, Mendelsohn ML (eds) Biological dosimetry. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  107. Lloyd DC, Prosser JS, Lelliott DJ, Moquet JE (1982) Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis. XII. A review of cases investigated: 1981. UK National Radiological Protection Board Report R-128Google Scholar
  108. Lotzová E, Cudkowicz G (1974) Abrogation of resistance to bone marrow grafts by silica particles. J Immunol 113: 798–803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lowenthal IW, Harris AW (1985) Activation of mouse lymphocytes inhibits induction of rapid cell death by x-irradiation. J Immunol 135: 1119–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Manori I, Kushilevsky A, Weinstein Y (1986) Analysis of interleukin 1 mediated radioprotection. Clin Exp Immunol 63: 526–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. McConkey DJ, Orrenius S, Jondal M (1990) Cellular signalling in programmed cell death (apoptosis) Immunol Today 11: 120–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mori, T, Tsoi MS, Gillis S, Santos E, Thomas ED, Storb R (1983) Cellular interactions in marrow-grafted patients. I. Impairment of cell-mediated lympholysis associated with graft vs host disease and the effect of interleukin 2. J Immunol 130: 712–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Morrissey PJ, Charrier K, Bressler L, Alpert A (1987) The influence of IL-1 treatment on the reconstitution of the hemopoietic and immune systems following sublethal radiation. J Immunol 140: 4204–4210Google Scholar
  114. Myburgh JA, Smit JA, Browde S (1984a) Total lymphoid irradiation in vascularized organ allotransplantation in primates. In: Slavin S (ed) Tolerance in bone marrow and organ transplantation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 105–153Google Scholar
  115. Myburgh JA, Smit JA, Stark JH, Browde S (1984b) Total lymphoid irradiation in kidney and liver transplantation in the baboon: prolonged graft survival and alterations in T cell subsets with low cumulative dose regimens. J Immunol 132: 1010–1025Google Scholar
  116. Myburgh JA, Meyers AM, Botha JR, Thomson PD, Smit JA, Browde S, Lakier R (1987) Wide field low-dose total lymphoid irradiation in clinical kidney transplantation. Transpl Proc 19: 1974–1977Google Scholar
  117. Najarian JS, Sutherland DER, Ferguson RM et al. (1981) Total lymphoid irradiation and kidney transplantation: a clinical experience. Transplant Proc 13: 417–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Naparstek E, Slavin S (1988) Long-term damage to the immune system after irradiation. In: Testa NG, Gale RP (eds) Hematopoiesis. Long-term effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 217–239Google Scholar
  119. Naeim F, Smith GS, Gale RP, and the UCLA Marrow Transplant team (1978) Morphologic aspects of bone marrow transplantation in patients with aplastic anemia. Hum Pathol 9: 295–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Neta R, Douches S, Oppenheim JJ (1986) Interleukin 1 is a radioprotector. J Immunol 136: 2483–2485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Nossal GJV (1987) Immunology - the basic components of the immune system. N Engl J Med 316: 1320–1324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Nuesslein HG, Herbst M, Manger BJ et al. (1985) Total lymphoid irradiation in patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 28: 1205–1210Google Scholar
  123. Olson GB, Bartels PH (1984) Assessment of environmental insults on lymphoid cells as detected by computer assisted morphometric techniques. In: Eisert WG, Mendelsohn ML (eds) Biological dosimetry. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 203–218Google Scholar
  124. Olson GB, Bartels PH, Anderson RE (1982) Computer assisted morphometric analysis of radiation injury in murine lymphocytes. Anal Quant Cytol 4: 181–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. O’Reilly RJ, Collins NH, Keman N et al. (1985) Transplantation of marrow-depleted T cells by soybean lectin agglutination and E-rosette depletion: major histocompatibility complex-related graft resistance in leukemic transplant recipients. Transpl Proc 17: 455–459Google Scholar
  126. Order E (1981) Clinical radiation research in arthritis, caution, progress and hope. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 7: 129–130Google Scholar
  127. Paul WE (ed) (1986) Fundamental immunology. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  128. Pennock JL, Reitz BA, Bieber CP et al. (1981) Survival of primates following orthotopic cardiac transplantation treated with total lymphoid irradiation and chemical immune suppression. Transplantation 32: 467–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Pierce GF, Polmar SH, Schacter BZ, Brovall C, Hornick DL, Sorensen RU (1986) Natural cytotoxicity in immunodeficiency diseases: preservation of natural killer activity and the in vivo appearance of radioresistant killing. Human Immunol 15: 85–96Google Scholar
  130. Pilepich MV, Sicard GA, Reaux SR et al. (1983) Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection. Transplantation 35: 208–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Prosser JS (1976) Survival of human T and B lymphocytes after x-irradiation. Int J Radiat Biol 30: 459–465Google Scholar
  132. Prosser JS, Moquet JE, Lloyd DC, Edwards AA (1988) Radiation induction of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. Mutat Res 199: 37–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Ramsay NKC, Kersey JH (1984) Conditioning of bone marrow recipients with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. In: Slavin S (ed) Tolerance in bone marrow and organ transplantation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 167–174Google Scholar
  134. Reisner Y, Ben-Bassat I, Douer D, Kaploon A, Schwartz E, Ramot B (1986) Demonstration of clonable alloreactive host T cells in a primate model for bone marrow transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 4012–4015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Riggs JE, Lussier AM, Lee SK, Appel MC, Woodland RT (1988) Differential radiosensitivity among B cell subpopulations. J Immunol 141: 1799–1807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Royer HD, Reinherz EL (1987) T lymphocytes - ontogeny, function, and relevance to clinical disorders. N Engl J Med 317: 1136–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Rubinstein A, Radl J, Cottier H, Rossi E, Gugler E (1973) Unusual combined immunodeficiency syndrome exhibiting kappa-IgD paraproteinemia, residual gut immunity and graft-versus-host reaction after plasma infusion. Acta Paediatr Scand 62: 365–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Rynasiewicz JJ, Sutherland DER, Kawahara K, Najarian JS (1981) Total lymphoid irradiation: critical timing and combination with cyclosporine A for immunosuppression in a rat heart allograft model. J Surg Res 30: 365–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sachs L, (1987) The molecular control of blood cell development. Science 238: 1374–1379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sado T, Kamisaku H, Kubo LE (1985) Strain difference in the radiosensitivity of immunocompetent cells and its influence on the residual host-vs-graft reaction in lethally irradiated mice grafted with semiallogeneic bone marrow. J Immunol 134: 704–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sampson D, Levin BS, Hoppe RT et al. (1985) Preliminary observations on the use of total lymphoid irradiation, rabbit antithymocyte globulin, and low-dose prednisone in human cadaver renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 17: 1299–1303Google Scholar
  142. Sanderson BJ, Morley AA (1986) Mitogenic stimulation may induce an antimutagenic repair system in human lymphocytes. Mutagenesis 1: 131–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sato C, Kojima K, Matzzawa T, Sairenji T, Hinuma Y (1974) Lack of recovery from radiation damage on colony forming ability and on membrane charge in a Burkitt-lymphoma cell line. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 15: 25–31Google Scholar
  144. Schacter B, Hansal S, Arno J, Levine MJ (1985) Polymorphic radiation sensitivity of human natural killer activity: possible role of DNA strand breakage. Human Immunol 14: 49–58Google Scholar
  145. Schaefer UW, Beelen D (1989) Knochenmarktransplantation. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  146. Scheid W, Weber J, Traut H (1988) Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by an x-radiation accident: results of a 4-year postirradiation analysis. Int J Radiat Biol 54: 395–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Schrek R (1961) Qualitative and quantitative reactions of lymphocytes to x-rays. Ann NY Acad Sci 95: 839–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Schull WJ (1984) Atomic bomb survivors: pattern of cancer risk. In: Boice JD Jr, Fraumeni JF Jr (eds) Radiation carcinogenesis: epidemiology and biological significance. Raven, New York, pp 21–36Google Scholar
  149. Schurman DJ, Hirshman P, Strober S (1981) Total lymphoid irradiation and local joint irradiation in the treatment of adjuvant arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 24: 38–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Schwartz E, Lapidot S, Gozes D, Singer TS, Reisner Y (1987) Abrogation of bone marrow allograft resistance in mice by increased total body irradiation correlates with eradication of host clonable T cells and alloreactive cytotoxic precursors. J Immunol 138: 460–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Sellins KS, Cohen JJ (1987) Gene induction by gamma- irradiation leads to DNA fragmentation in lymphocytes. J Immunol 139: 3199–3206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Sieber G, Zierach P, Herrmann F, Brust VJ, Ruehl H (1985) Impaired B lymphocyte reactivity in patients after radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 777–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Sinha AA, Lopes MT, McDevitt HO (1990) Autoimmune diseases: the failure of self tolerance. Science 248: 1380–1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Slater J, Ngo E, Lau HS (1976) Effect of therapeutic irradiation on the immune responses. AJR 126: 313–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Slavin S (1979) Successful treatment of autoimmune disease in (NZB/NZW) F1 female mice by using fractionated total lymphoid irradiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 5274–5276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Slavin S, Seidel HJ (1982) Hematopoietic activity in bone marrow chimeras prepared with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Exp Hematol 10: 206–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Slavin S, Strober S, Fuks Z, Kaplan HS (1976) Long-term survival of skin allografts in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation. Science 193: 1252–1255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Slavin S, Strober S, Fuks Z, Kaplan HS (1977a) Induction of specific tissue transplantation tolerance using fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in adult mice: long-term survival of allogeneic bone marrow and skin grafts. J Exp Med 146: 34–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Slavin S, Strober S, Fuks Z, Kaplan HS (1977b) Use of total lymphoid irradiation in tissue transplantation in mice. Transplant Proc 9: 1001–1004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Slavin S, Reitz B, Bieber CP, Kaplan HS, Strober S (1978) Transplantation tolerance in adult rats using total lymphoid irradiation: permanent survival of skin, heart and marrow allografts. J Exp Med 147: 700–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Slavin S, Strober S, Fuks Z, Kaplan HS (1980) Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance, using total lymphoid irradiation. Diabetes 29: 121–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Slavin S, Naparstek E, Weshler Z, Brautbar C, Rachmilewitz EA, Fuks Z (1983a) Bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia in HLA-identical siblings using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and cyclophosphamide. Transplant Proc 15: 668–670Google Scholar
  163. Slavin S, Naparstek E, Weshler Z, Fuks Z (1983b) Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as part of the conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia. In: Gale RP (ed) Recent advances in bone marrow transplantation, vol 7. UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 21–27Google Scholar
  164. Slavin S, Or R, Weshler Z et al. (1985) The use of total lymphoid irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in animals and man. Survey Immunol Res 4: 283–252Google Scholar
  165. Slavin S, Or R, Naparstek E et al. (1986) New approaches for prevention of rejection and graft vs host disease (GVHD) in clinical bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Israel J Med Sci 22: 264–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Smith WW, Alderman JM, Gillespie RE (1957) Hematopoietic recovery induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in irradiated animals. Radiat Res 7: 451Google Scholar
  167. Soden M, Hassan J, Scott PL et al. (1989) Lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumathoid arthritis. Longterm followup of patients treated with 750 rads or 2000 rads. Arthritis Rheum 32: 523–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sprent J, Anderson RE, Miller JFAP (1974) Radiosensitivity of T and B lymphocytes. II. Effect of irradiation on response of T cells to alloantigens. Eur J Immunol 4: 204–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Sprent J, Gao EK, Webb SR (1990) T cell reactivity to MHC molecules: immunity versus tolerance. Science 248: 1357–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Starzl TE, Fung J, Venkateramman R, Todo S, Demetris AJ, Jain A (1989) FK 506 for liver, kidney, and pancreas transplantation. Lancet II: 1000–1004Google Scholar
  171. Stefani S (1966) Old-tuberculin-induced radioresistance on human lymphocytes in vitro. Br J Haematol 12: 345–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Stefani ST, Schrek R (1963) Radioprotection of human lymphocytes in vitro by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Radiat Res 19: 231Google Scholar
  173. Strober S, Slavin S, Gottlieb M et al. (1979) Allograft tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Immunol Rev 46: 87–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Strober S, Modry DL, Hoppe RT et al. (1984) Induction of specific unresponsivenes to heart allografts in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin. J Immunol 132: 1013–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Sutherland DER, Ferguson RM, Rynasiewicz JJ et al. (1983) Total lymphoid irradiation vs cyclosporin for retransplantation in recipients at high risk to reject renal allografts. Transplant Proc 15: 460–464Google Scholar
  176. Tagliaferro, WH, Tagliaferro LG (1970) Effects of irradiation on initial and anamnestic hemolysin responses in rabbits; antigen injection before x-rays. J Immunol 104: 1364–1376Google Scholar
  177. Takada A, Takada Y, Huang C, Ambrus JL (1969) Biphasic pattern of thymus regeneration after whole body irradiation. J Exp Med 129: 445–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Takada A, Takada Y, Kim U, Ambrus JL (1971) Bone marrow, spleen and thymus regeneration pattern in mice after whole body irradiation. Radiat Res 45: 522–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Talmadge JE, Meyers KM, Prieur PJ, Stakey JL (1980) Role of NK cells in tumor growth and metastases in beige mice. Nature 284: 622–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Tanay A, Strober S (1984) Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell dependent and T cell independent antibody responses. J Immunol 132: 979–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Tanay A, Strober S, Logue GL, Schiffman G (1984) Use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in studies of the T cell dependence of autoantibody production in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol 132: 1036–1040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Tanay A, Field EH, Hoppe RT, Strober S (1987) Long term followup of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation. Arthritis Rheum 30: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Terr AI, Moss RB, Strober S (1987) Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 80: 798–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Theofilopoulos AN, Balderas R, Schawler DL et al. (1980) Inhibition of T cell proliferation and SLE-like syndrome of MRL/1 mice by whole body or total lymphoid irradiation. J Immunol 125: 2137–2142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Thomas ED, Storb R, Clift RA et al. (1975) Bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 292: 832–843, 895–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Thomas ED, Clift RA, Hersman J et al. (1982) Marrow transplantation for acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in first remission using fractionated or single-dose irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 8: 817–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Timonen T, Ortaldo JR, Herberman RB (1981) Characteristics of human large granular lymphocytes and relationship to natural killer and K cells. J Exp Med 153: 569–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Trentham DE, Belli JA, Anderson RI, Buckley JA, Goetzl EJ, David JR, Austen KF (1981) Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 305: 976–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Troiano R, Devereux C, Oleske J et al. (1988) T cell subsets and disease progression after total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51: 980–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Trowell OA (1961) Radiosensitivity of the cortical and medullary lymphocytes in the thymus. Int J Radiol Biol 4: 163–173Google Scholar
  191. Trowell OA (1965) Lymphocytes. In: Willmere N (ed) Cells and tissues in culture. Academic, London, pp 95–172Google Scholar
  192. Tsoi MS, Dobbs S, Brkic S, Ramberg R, Thomas ED, Storb R (1984) Cellular interactions in marrow-grafted patients. II. Normal monocyte antigen-presenting and defective T-cell-proliferative functions early after grafting and during chronic graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation 37: 556–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. van Bekkum DW, De Vries MJ (1967) Radiation chi- maeras. Logos, Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  194. van Bekkum DW, Dooren LJ, Vossen JM, Schellekens PTA (1985) Immune reconstitution of radiation chimeras. In: Van Bekkum DW, Löwenberg B (eds) Bone marrow transplantation. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 311–350Google Scholar
  195. van Bekkum DW, Löwenberg B (1985) Bone marrow transplantation. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  196. von Boehmer H, Kisielow P (1990) Self-nonself discrimination by T cells. Science 248: 1369–1373Google Scholar
  197. von Melchner H, Barlett PF (1983) Mechanisms of early allogeneic marrow graft rejection. Immunol Rev 71: 31–55Google Scholar
  198. Vriesendorf HM, von Bekkum DW (1984) Susceptibility to total body irradiation. In: Broerse JJ, MacVittie TJ (eds) Response of different species to total body irradiation. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp 43–57Google Scholar
  199. Waer M, Vanrenterghem Y, Kianang K, van der Schueren E, Michelsen P, Vandeputte M (1984) Comparison of the immunosuppressive effect of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) vs conventional immunosuppression (CI) in renal cadaveric allotransplantation. J Immunol 132: 1041–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Wald N, Conner MK (1988) Induced chromosome damage after irradiation and cytotoxic drugs. In: Testa NG, Gale RP (eds) Hematopoiesis. Long-term effects of chemotherapy and radiation. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 159–201Google Scholar
  201. Weigensberg M, Morecki S, Weiss L, Fuks Z, Slavin S (1984) Suppression of cell mediated immune responses following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). 1. Characterization of suppressor cell of the mixed lymphocyte reaction. J Immunol 132: 971–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Witherspoon RP, Kopecky K, Storb RF et al. (1982) Immunological recovery in 48 patients following syngeneic marrow transplantation for hematological malignancy. Transplantation 33: 143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Witherspoon RP, Lum LG, Storb R (1984) Immunologic reconstitution after human marrow grafting. Semin Hematol 21: 2–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Woodruff MFA, Robson JS, Nolan B et al. (1963) Homotransplantation of kidney in patients treated by preoperative local irradiation and postoperative administration of an antimetabolite (Imuran). Report of six cases. Lancet II: 675–682Google Scholar
  205. Woodruff JM, Hansen JA, Good RA, Santos GW, Slavin RE (1976) The pathology of the graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) in adults receiving bone marrow transplants. Transplant Proc 8: 675–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Yamada Y, Neriishi S, Ishimary T et al. (1985) Effects of atomic bomb radiation on the differentiation of B lymphocytes and on the function of concanavalin A- induced suppressor T lymphocytes. Radiat Res 101: 351–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Zan-Bar I, Slavin S, Strober S (1978) Induction and mechanism of tolerance to bovine serum albumin after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). J Immunol 121: 1400–1404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Zan-Bar I, Slavin S, Strober S (1979) Effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary and secondary antibody response to sheep red blood cells. Cell Immunol 45: 167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Zarcone D, Tilden AB, Lane VG, Grossi CE (1989) Radiation sensitivity of resting and activated non-specific cytotoxic cells of T lineage and NK lineage. Blood 73: 1615–1621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Zürcher C, van Bekkum DW (1985) Pathology of radiation chimeras. In: van Bekkum DW, Löwenberg B (eds) Bone marrow transplantation. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 213–310Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Grosse-Wilde
    • 1
  • U. W. Schaefer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für ImmungenetikGermany
  2. 2.Klinik und Poliklinik für KnochenmarktransplantationUniversitätsklinikum EssenEssen 1Germany

Personalised recommendations