Force and Tactile Sensing for Robots

  • P. Dario
  • M. Bergamasco
  • A. Fiorillo
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 43)

Abstract

This paper deals with methods and techniques for sensing and controlling contact forces originated by the physical interaction of a robot with the environment.

Contact sensing includes force and tactile sensing. A distinction between these two sensing modalities is that force sensing refers primarily to the measurement of the resultant mechanical effects of contact, while tactile sensing involves the detection of a wide range of local parameters (physical and chemical) affected by contact.

This paper is comprised of a section in which force sensing techniques and devices usable in different classes of robots are discussed, and a second section dealing with true tactile sensing. In each section the motivations and the general problems encountered in each sensing modality are analyzed first, then the state of the art of related sensing technologies is surveyed.

In a third section, a coherent approach is presented to the problem of replicating human tactile sensing capabilities in an artificial robotic system. The advantage of this approach is to allow a comprehensive analysis of the sensory, motor, and control components of an advanced robot system, as well as to illustrate the roles of force and tactile sensing, and the importance of their coordination, in artificial tactile perception.

Keywords

Fatigue Graphite Welding Torque Foam 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allan R (1985) Nonvision sensors. Electronic Design, June 27: 103–115Google Scholar
  2. Auld BA, Bahr AJ (1986) A novel multifunction robot sensor. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation: 1791–1797, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  3. Bajcsy R (1984) What can we learn from one finger experiments? In: Brady M, Paul R (Eds) Robotics Research, Mit Press: 509–527, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  4. Barry Wright Corporation (1984a), Watertown, MA, ASTEK Model FS6-120AGoogle Scholar
  5. Barry Wright Corporation (1984b), Watertown, MA, Sensoflex Tactile SystemGoogle Scholar
  6. Barth PW, Bernard SL, Angell JB (1985) Flexible circuit and sensor arrays fabricated by monolythic silicon technology. IEEE Trans, on Electron. Devices, ED-32(7):1202–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Begey S (1984) An optical tactile array sensor. Proc. SPIE Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, Vol. 521:271–280, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  8. Begey Corporation (1985) Littleton, CO, TSA-32-V4 Optical Tactile Sensor Array, Technical Bulletin No. 1Google Scholar
  9. Begey Corporation (1986) Littleton, CO, FTS-2 Fingertip-Shaped Tactile Sensor, Technical Bulletin No. 2Google Scholar
  10. Bejczy AK (1977) Effect of hand-based sensors on manipulator control performance. Mechanism and Machine Theory 12:547–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bejczy AK (1983) “Smart hand”-Manipulator control through sensory feedback, January 15, JPL D-107 ReportGoogle Scholar
  12. Bicchi A, Dario P, Pinotti PC (1985) On the control of a sensorized artificial finger for tactile exploration of objects. Proc. ’85 IFAC Symp. on Robot Control, Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  13. Boie RA (1984) Capacitive impedance readout tactile image sensor. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics: 370–378, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  14. British Robotic Systems Ltd. (1984), London, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Brock D, Chiu S (1985) Environment perception of an articulated robot hand using contact sensors. Proc. ASME Winter Annual Meeting, MiamiGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown MK (1986) The extraction of curved surface features with generic range sensors. Int. J. Robotics Res., 5(1):3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buttazzo G, Dario P, Bajcsy R (1986) Finger based explorations. Proc. SPIE Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  18. Chun K, Wise KD (1985) A high-performance silicon tactile imager based on a capacitive cell. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-32(7):1196–1201Google Scholar
  19. Coiffet P (1983) Robot Technology. Interaction with the Environment(2), Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  20. Craig J J (1986) Introduction to robotics. Chapter 9: Force control of manipulators. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  21. Cutkosky MR, Wright PK (1984) Active control of a compliant wrist in manufacturing tasks. Proc. 14th ISIR: 517–528, Gothenburg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  22. Cutkosky MR (1985) Robotic grasping and fine manipulation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dario P, Domenici C, Bardelli R, De Rossi D, Pinotti PC (1983) Piezoelectric polymers: New sensor materials for robotic applications. Proc. 13th ISIR/Robots 7, Paper MS83–393, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  24. Dario P, De Rossi D, Giannotti C, Vivaldi F, Pinotti PC (1984) Ferroelectric polymer tactile sensors for prostheses. Ferroelectrics 60(1–4):199–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dario P, Bicchi A, Vivaldi F, Pinotti PC (1985) Tendon actuated exploratory finger with polymeric, skin-like tactile sensor. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation: 701706, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  26. Dario P, De Rossi D (1985) Tactile sensors and the gripping challenge. IEEE Spectrum 22(8):46–52Google Scholar
  27. Dario P (1986) Ferroelectric polymer transducers for advanced robots. To appear in: Herbert JM, Wang TT, Glass AM, (Eds), Application of Ferroelectric Polymers, Blackie and Son Ltd, Glasgow, UKGoogle Scholar
  28. Dario P, Bicchi A, Fiorillo A, Buttazzo G, Francesconi R (1986) A sensorized scenario for basic investigation on active touch. Pugh A, (Ed) Robot Sensors. Tactile & Non-Vision, 2, IFS (Publications) Ltd, Bedford, UK, and Springer-Verlag: 237–245, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  29. Dario P, Bergamasco M, Femi D, Fiorillo A, Vaccarelli A (1987) Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Raleigh, NCGoogle Scholar
  30. Dario P, Buttazzo G (1987) An anthropomorphic robot finger for investigating artificial tactile perception. Int. J. Robotics Res. (in press)Google Scholar
  31. De Fazio TL, Seltzer DS, Whitney DE (1984) The IRCC instrumented remote center compliance. The Industrial Robot 11(4):238–242Google Scholar
  32. Fearing RS, Hollerbach JM (1985) Basic solid mechanics for tactile sensing. Int. J. Robotics Res. 4(3):40–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fiorillo A, Dario P, Bergamasco M (1987) A sensorized robot gripper. Robotics (submitted)Google Scholar
  34. Grahn AR, Astle L (1984) Robotic ultrasonic force sensor arrays. Proc. Robots 8: 21/1–17, DetroitGoogle Scholar
  35. Grimson EW, Lozano-Perez T (1984) Model-based recognition and localization from sparse range or tactile data. Int. J. Robotics Res., 3(3):3–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hackwood S, Beni G, Hornak LA, Wolfe R, Nelson TJ (1983) A torque-sensitive tactile array for robotics. Int. J. Robotics Res., 2(2):46–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harmon LD, (1982) Automated tactile sensing. Int. J. Robotics Res., 1(2):3–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harmon LD (1984) Tactile sensing for robots. In: Brady M, Gerhardt LA, Davidson HF, (Eds) Robotics and Artificial Intelligence NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag: 109–157, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hillis WD (1981) Active touch sensing. MIT Al Memo AIM629, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  40. Ishikawa M, Shimojo M, (1982) A tactile sensor using pressure-conductive rubber. Proc. 2nd Sensor Symp, IEE of Japan: 189–192, Tsukuba, JapanGoogle Scholar
  41. Jacobsen S, Wood J, Knutti DF, Biggers KB (1984) The UTAH/MIT dexterous hand: Work in progress. Int. J. Robotics Res. 3(4):21–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Johansson RS (1979) Tactile afferent units with small and well demarcated receptive fields in the glabrous skin area of the human hand. In:Kenshalo DR, (Ed) Sensory functions of the skin of humans, Plenum Press: 129–145, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kasai M, Takeyasu K, Uno M, Murakaoka K (1981) Trainable assembly system with an active sensory table possessing six axes. Proc. 11th ISIR: 7–9, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  44. King AA, White RM (1985) Tactile sensing array based on forming and detecting an optical image. Sensors and Actuators, (8):49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Larcombe MHE (1981) Carbon fibre tactile sensors. Proc. RoViSec 1: 273–276, Stratford, UKGoogle Scholar
  46. Lestelle D (1985) Gripper with finger built-in force/torque sensor. RoViSeC 5:69–78, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  47. Lord Corporation (1985b), Cary, NC, Tactile Sensors Series 200Google Scholar
  48. Lord Corporation (1985a) Cary, NC, Lord Instrumented Gripper Luo RC, Wang F, Lin Y (1984) An imaging tactile sensor with magnetoresistive transduction. Proc SPIE Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, Vol. 521:264–270, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  49. Mason MT (1981) Compliance and force control for computer controlled manipulators. IEEE Trans, on Systems Man. and Cyber. SMC-11, 6:418–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mason MT (1982) Compliant motion. In: Brady M, Hollerbach JM, Johnson TL, Lozano-Perez T, Mason MT (Eds) Robot Motion, Planning and Control, MIT Press: 305–322, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  51. Morris KA (1985) Tactile sensing for automated assembly. Report LL-1201, Lord Corporation, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  52. Mott DH, Lee MH, Nicholls HR (1984) An experimental very high resolution tactile sensor array. Proc. RoViSeC 4: 241–250, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  53. Nicol K (1981) A new capacitive transducer system for measuring force distribution statically and dynamically. Transducer Tempcon ’81, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  54. Nomura A, Abiko I, Shibata J, Watanabe T, Nihei K (1985) Two-dimensional tactile sensor using optical method. IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., CHMT-8(2):264–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ogorek M (1985) Tactile sensors, Manufacturing Engineering, 94(2): 69–77Google Scholar
  56. Patterson RW, Nevill GE (1986) Performance of an induced vibration touch sensor. Pugh A (Ed) Robot Sensors. Tactile & Non-Vision, 2, IFS (Publications) Ltd, Bedford, UK and Springer-Verlag: 219–228, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokyoGoogle Scholar
  57. Paul RP (1981) Robot manipulators: Mathematics, programming and control. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  58. Pennywitt KE (1986) Robotic tactile sensing. Byte January 1986: 177-200Google Scholar
  59. Petersen K, Kowalski C, Brown J, Allen H, Knutti J (1985) A force sensing chip designed for robotic and manufacturing automation applications. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators: 30-32, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  60. Phillips JR, Johnson KO (1981) Tactile spatial resolution I I: Neural representation of bars, edges and gratings in monkey primary afferents. J. Neurophysiology 46(6):1192–1203Google Scholar
  61. Pugh A (Ed) (1986) Robot Sensors. Tactile & Non-Vision, 2, IFS (Publications) Ltd, Bedford, UKGoogle Scholar
  62. Purbrick JA (1981) A multi-axis force sensing finger. Proc. RoViSeC 1Google Scholar
  63. Raibert MH, Tanner JE (1982) Design and implementation of a VLSI tactile sensing computer. Int. J. Robotics Res. 1(3):3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Raibert MH (1984) An all digital VLSI tactile array sensor. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics: 314–319, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  65. Salisbury JK, Craig JJ (1982) Articulated hands: Force control and kinematic issues. Int. J. Robotics Res. 1(1):4–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Salisbury JK (1984) Design and control of an articulated hand. Proc. Int. Symp. on Design and Synthesis, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  67. Salisbury JK (1985) Kinematic and force analysis of articulated hands. In: Mason MT and Salisbury JK Jr, (Ed.) Robot hands and the mechanics of manipulation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  68. Schneiter JL (1982) An optical tactile sensor for robots. MIT Master Thesis of Science in Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  69. Shimano BE (1978) The kinematic design and force control of computer-controlled manipulators. Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University Computer Science Department, Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AIM 313Google Scholar
  70. Schoenberg AA, Sullivan DM, Baker CD, Booth HE, Galway C (1984) Ultrasound PVF2 transducers for sensing tactile force. Ferroelectrics, 60(1–4): 239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Siegel DM, Garabieta I, Hollerbach JM (1985) A capacitive based tactile sensor. Proc. SPIE Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  72. Siegel DM, Garabieta I, Hollerbach JM (1986) An integrated tactile and thermal sensor. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation: 1286–1291, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  73. Snyder WE, St. Clair J (1978) Conductive elastomers as sensor for industrial parts handling equipment. IEEE Trans, on Instrum. and Measure, IM-27(1):94-99Google Scholar
  74. Stokic D, Vukobratovic M, Hristic D (1986) Implementation of force feedback in manipulation robots. Int. J. Robotics Res. 5(l):66–76Google Scholar
  75. Tactile Robotic Systems (1985), Sunnyvale, CA Tanie K, Komoriya K, Kaneko M, Tachi S and Fujikawa A (1984) A high resolution tactile sensor. Proc. RoViSeC 4: 251–260, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  76. Transensory Devices, Inc. (1984) Fremont, CA, Tactile perceptions Van Brussel H, Simons J (1978) Automatic assembly by active force feedback accommodation. Proc. 8th ISIR, Stuttgart, West GermanyGoogle Scholar
  77. Van Brussel H, Belien H, Thielemans H (1985) Force sensing for advanced robot control. Proc. RoViSeC 5:59–68, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  78. Vranish JM, Mitchell EE, Demayer R (1982) Magnetoelastic force feedback sensors for robots and machine tools. Proc. SPIE Conf. on “Robotics and Industrial Inspection”, Vol. 360:253–263, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  79. Vranish JM (1984) Magnetoresistive skin for robots. Proc. “Robotics Research. The next five years and beyond” Paper MS84-506, Bethlehem, PAGoogle Scholar
  80. Vranish JM (1986) Magnetoinductive skin for robots. Proc. 16th ISIR: 599–631, BruxellesGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang SSM, Will PM (1978) Sensors for computer controlled mechanical assembly. The Industrial Robot 5(1):9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Watson PC, Drake SH (1975) Pedestal and wrist force sensors for automatic assembly. Proc. 5th ISIR:283–291, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  83. Whitney DE (1985) Historical perspective and state of the art in robot force control. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation: 262–268, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  84. Wolffenbuttel RF, Regtien PPL (1986) Integrated capacitive tactile imaging sensor. Proc. 16th ISIR: 633–641, BruxellesGoogle Scholar
  85. Wong K, Van der Spiegel J (1985) A shielded piezoresistive tactile sensor array. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators:26–29, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  86. Wu C (1985) Compliance control of a robot manipulator based on joint torque servo. Int. J. Robotics Res. 4(3):55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhang H, Paul RP (1984) Hybrid control of robot manipulators. Report TR-EE 84–27, Purdue University, West LafayetteGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Dario
    • 1
  • M. Bergamasco
    • 1
  • A. Fiorillo
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro “E. Piaggio”University of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations