Plant Fibers pp 332-348 | Cite as

Analytical Methods for Gelation of Soybean Proteins

  • T. Nakamura
Part of the Molecular Methods of Plant Analysis book series (MOLMETHPLANT, volume 10)


Soybeans are used for various traditional Japanese foods such as tofu, yuba, miso and syoyu. Recently, however, soybean protein products have also found application as ingredients for the manufacture of fabricated and processed foods due to their excellent functional properties and nutritional value. The gel-forming ability of soybean proteins induced by heating is one of their most significant functional properties with respect to their use in food preparation. The behaviour of soybean proteins during gel formation, their chemical and structural properties responsible for gelling ability and physical properties of the gels formed are important matters that should be elucidated. The clarification of these points will facilitate the control of the gel formation process and gel properties, thus enhancing the scope of soybean protein application to foods.


Agric Food Soybean Protein Soluble Aggregate Plastein Reaction Constituent Subunit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aoki H (1965) Studies on the gelation of soybean protein. Part 1. On the methods determining the physical properties (chewy properties) of gels. J Jpn Soc Food Sci Tech 39:262–269Google Scholar
  2. Aoki H (1970) Changes in soybean protein components during its gel formation process. J Agric Chem Soc Jpn 17:129–135Google Scholar
  3. Babajimopoulos M, Damodaran S, Rizvi SSH, Kinsella JE (1983) Effects of various anions on the rheological and gelling behavior of soy proteins: thermodynamic observations. J Agric Food Chem 31:1270–1275Google Scholar
  4. Barthova J, Hbras P, Leblova S (1973) Isolation and properties of plant lactate dehydrogenase. Collect Czech Chem Commun 38:2174–2180Google Scholar
  5. Beachy RN, Chen ZL, Horsch RB, Rogers SG, Hoffmann NJ, Fraley RT (1985) Accumulation and assembly of soybean beta-conglycinin in seeds of transformed petunia plants. EMBO J 4:3047–3053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beveridge T, Jones L, Tung M (1984) Progel and gel formation and reversibility of gelation of whey, soybean, and albumin protein gels. J Agric Food Chem 32:307–313Google Scholar
  7. Bikbov TM, Grinberg VY, Schmandke H, Chaika TS, Vaintraub I A, Tolstoguzov VB (1981) A study on gelation of soybean globulin solutions 2, Viscoelastic properties and structure of thermotropic gels of soybean globulins. Coll Polymer Sci 259:536–547Google Scholar
  8. Bikbov TM, Grinberg VY, Schmandke H, Chaika TS, Vaintraub I A, Tolstoguzov VB (1983) Studies on gelation of soybean globulin solutions. Coll Polymer Sci 261:346–358Google Scholar
  9. Boland MJ, Wong E (1975) Purification and kinetic properties of chalcone-flavanone isomerase from soya bean. Eur J Biochem 50:383–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brinegar AC, Kinsella JE (1980) Reversible modification of lysine in soybean proteins, using citraconic anhydride: characterization of physical and chemical changes in soy protein isolate, the 7S globulin, and the 11S globulin. J Agric Food Chem 28:818–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bronovitskaya ZS, Kretovich VL (1976) Molecular weight of soy cotyledon malate dehydrogenase. Dokl Biochem 190:19–26Google Scholar
  12. Brooks JR, Morr CV (1985) Current aspects of soy protein fractionation and nomenclature. J Am Oil Chem Soc 62:1347–1354Google Scholar
  13. Catsimpoolas N, Meyer EW (1968) Immunochemical properties of the 11S component of soybean proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys 125:742–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Catsimpoolas N, Meyer EW (1970) Gelation phenomena of soybean globulins. 1, Proteinprotein interactions. Cereal Chem 47:559–570Google Scholar
  15. Circle SJ, Meyer EW, Whitney RW (1964) Rheology of soy protein dispersions. Effect of heat and other factors on gelation. Cereal Chem 41:157–172Google Scholar
  16. Coates JB, Medeiros JS, Thanh VH, Nielsen NC (1985) Characterization of the subunits of beta-conglycinin. Arch Biochem Biophys 243:184–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Damodaran S, Kinsella JE (1982) Effect of conglycinin on the thermal aggregation of gly- cinin. J Agric Food Chem 30:812–817Google Scholar
  18. Danilenko AN, Grozav EK, Bikbov TM, Grinberg VY, Tolstoguzov VB (1985) Studies on the stability of 11S globulin from soybeans by differential scanning microcalorimetry. Int J Biol Macromol 7:109–112Google Scholar
  19. Danilenko AN, Bikbov TM, Burova TV, Grinberg VY, Tolstoguzov VB (1986) The effect of neutral salts on the conformational stability of 11S globulins from some seed using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Nahrung 30:257–262Google Scholar
  20. Dickinson CD, Floener LA, Lilley GG, Nielsen NC (1987) Selfassembly of proglycinin and hybrid proglycinin synthesized in vitro from cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:5525–5529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Diel E, Stan HJ (1978) Purification and characterization of two isoenzymes of lipoxygenase from soybeans. Planta 142:321–328Google Scholar
  22. Domoney C, Barker D, Casey R (1986) The complete deduced amino acid sequences of legumin beta-polypeptides from different genetic loci in Pisum. Plant Mol Biol 7:467–474Google Scholar
  23. Doyle JJ, Schulpr MA, Godette WD, Zenger V, Beachy RN, Slightom JL (1986) The glycosylated seed storage proteins of Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris: structural homologies of genes and proteins. J Biol Chem 261:9228–9238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Farinelli MP, Fry DW, Richardson KE (1983) Isolation, purification, and partial characterization of formate dehydrogenase from soybean seed. Plant Physiol 73:858–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Feeny RE, Whitaker JR (eds) (1977) Food protein: improvement through chemical and enzymatic modification. Adv Chem Ser 160. Am Chem Soc, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  26. Feeny RE, Whitaker JR (eds) (1982) Modification of proteins: food, nutritional, and pharmacological aspects. Adv Chem Ser 198. Am Chem Soc Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  27. Fridman C, Lis H, Sharon N, Katchalski E (1969) Isolation and characterization of soybean cytochrome c. Arch Biochem Biophys 126:299–304Google Scholar
  28. Fujimoto S, Nakagawa T, Ohara A (1977) Further studies on the properties of violet colored acid phosphatase from soybean. Chem Pharm Bull 25:3283–3288Google Scholar
  29. Fukazawa C, Momma T, Hirano H, Harada K, Udaka K (1985) Glycinin A3B4 mRNA; cloning and sequencing of double-stranded cDNA complementary to a soybean storage protein. J Biol Chem 260:6234–6239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Funikawa T, Ohta S, Yamamoto A (1979) Texture-structure relationships in heat-induced soy protein gels. J Texture Stud 10:333–346Google Scholar
  31. Geoffrey ES, Kenwyn RG (1981) Detection and characterization of a new beta-conglycinin from soybean seeds. Arch Biochem Biophys 210:525–530Google Scholar
  32. Griffiths NM, Billington MJ, Crimer AA, Hitchock CHS (1984) An assessment of commercially available reagents for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of soya protein in meat products. J Sci Food Agric 35:1255–1260Google Scholar
  33. Haque Z, Matoba T, Kito M (1982) Incorporation of fatty acid into food protein: palmitoyl soybean glycinin. J Agric Food Chem 30:481–486Google Scholar
  34. Harpaz N, Flowers HM, Sharon N (1977) alpha-D-Galactosidase from soybeans destroying blood group B antigens. Eur J Biochem 77:419–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hashizume K, Watanabe T (1979) Influence of heating temperature on conformational changes of soybean proteins. Agric Biol Chem 39:683–690Google Scholar
  36. Hashizume K, Nakamura N, Watanabe K (1975) Influence of ionic strength on conformation changes of soybean proteins caused by heating, and relationship of its conformation changes to gel formation. Agric Biol Chem 39:1339–1347Google Scholar
  37. Hermansson AM (1978) Physico-chemical aspects of soy proteins structure formation. J Texture Stud 9:33–58Google Scholar
  38. Hermansson AM (1979) Methods of studying functional characteristic of vegetable proteins. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56:272–279Google Scholar
  39. Hermansson AM (1985) Structure of soya glycinin and conglycinin gels. J Sci Food Agric 36:822–832Google Scholar
  40. Hermansson AM (1986) Soy protein gelation. J Am Oil Chem Soc 63:658–666Google Scholar
  41. Hermansson AM, Buchheim W (1981) Characterization of protein gels by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. J Coll Int Sci 81:519–530Google Scholar
  42. Hinz H-J (1986) Thermodynamic parameters for protein-protein and protein-ligand interaction by differential scanning microcalorimetry. In: Hirs CH, Timasheff SN (eds) Methods Enzymol, vol 130. Academic Press, New York, pp 59–79Google Scholar
  43. Hirano H, Fukazawa C, Harada K (1984) The complete amino acid sequence of the A3 subunit of the glycinin seed storage protein of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). J Biol Chem 259:14371–14377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hirano H, Fukazawa C, Harada K (1985) The primary structures of the A4 and A5 subunits are highly homologues to that of the A3 subunit in the glycinin seed storage protein of soybean. FEBS Lett 181:124–128Google Scholar
  45. Hirotsuka M, Taniguchi H, Narita H, Kito M (1984) Functionality and digestibility of a highly phosphorylated soybean protein. Agric Biol Chem 48:93–100Google Scholar
  46. Hitchcock CHS, Bailey FJ, Crimes AA, Dean DAG, Davis PJ (1981) Determination of soya proteins in food using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure. J Sci Food Agric 32:157–165Google Scholar
  47. Ikura K, Kometani T, Sasaki R, Chiba H (1980) Crosslinking of soybean 7S and 11S proteins by transglutaminase. Agric Biol Chem 44:2979–2984Google Scholar
  48. Iwabuchi S, Shibasaki K (1981) Immunochemical studies of the effect of ionic strength on thermal denaturation of soybean 11S globulin. Agric Biol Chem 45:285–293Google Scholar
  49. Iwabuchi S, Yamauchi K (1984) Effects of heat and ionic strength upon dissociation-as- sociation of soybean protein fraction. J Food Sci 49:1289–1294Google Scholar
  50. Kamata Y, Kikuchi M, Shibasaki K (1980) Non-dissociative small fragments of glycinin-T. Agric Biol Chem 44:575–580Google Scholar
  51. Kim SH, Kinsella EJ (1987) Surface active properties of proteins: effects of progressive suc- cinylation on film properties and foam stability of glycinin. J Food Sci 52:1341–1343Google Scholar
  52. Kinsella JE (1979) Functional properties of soy proteins. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56:242–258Google Scholar
  53. Koshiyama I, Fukushima D (1976) Purification and some properties of gamma-conglycinin in soybean seeds. Phytochemistry 15:161–164Google Scholar
  54. Koshiyama I, Hamano M, Fukushima D (1980–1981) A heat denaturation study of the 11S globulin in soybean seeds. Food Chem 6:309–322Google Scholar
  55. Krishnan KS, Brandts JF (1978) Scanning calorimetry. In: Hirs CH, Timasheff SN (eds) Methods Enzymol, vol 49. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  56. Kuwahata M, Nakahama N (1975) Viscoelasticity of soybean gel. J Agric Chem Soc Jpn 49:129–134Google Scholar
  57. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Larkins BA (1985) Polysomes. In: Linskens HF, Jackson JF (eds) Modern methods of plant analysis, New Series, vol 1. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 331–352Google Scholar
  59. Leblova S, Perglerova E (1976) Soybean alcohol dehydrogenase. Phytochemistry 15:813–815Google Scholar
  60. Lis H, Sharon N, Katchalski E (1966) Soybean hemagglutinin; a plant glycoprotein. J Biol Chem 241:684–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lycett GW, Croy RRD, Shirsat AH, Boulter D (1984) The complete nucleotide sequence of a legumin gene from pea (Pisum sativum L.). Nucl Acids Res 12:4493–4506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ma CY, Harwalkar VR (1987) Thermal coagulation of oat globulin. Cereal Chem 64:212–218Google Scholar
  63. Marco YA, Thanh VH, Turner NE, Scallon BJ, Nielsen NC (1984) Cloning and structural analysis of DNA encoding an A2B1a subunit of glycinin. J Biol Chem 259:13436–13441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Matsudomi N, Mori H, Kato A, Kobayashi K (1985) Emulsifying and foaming properties of heat-denatured soybean 11S globulins in relation to their surface hydrophobicity. Agric Biol Chem 49:915–919Google Scholar
  65. Mikami B, Nomura K, Morita U (1986) N-terminal sequence of soybean beta-amylase. J Biochem 96:513–516Google Scholar
  66. Momma T, Negoro T, Udaka K, Fukazawa C (1985 a) A complete cDNA coding for the sequence of glycinin A2B1a subunit precursor. FEBS Lett 188:117–122Google Scholar
  67. Momma T, Negoro T, Hirano H, Matsumoto A, Udaka K, Fukazawa C (1985 b) Glycinin A5A4B3 mRNA: cDNA cloning and nucleotide sequencing of a splitting storage protein subunit of soybean. Eur J Biochem 149:491–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Moreira M, Hermodson MA, Larkins BA, Nielsen NC (1979) Partial characterization of the acidic and basic polypeptides of glycinin. J Biol Chem 254:9921–9926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mori T, Utsumi S, Inaba H, Kitamura K, Harada K (1981) Differences in subunit composition of glycinin among soybean cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 29:20–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mori T, Nakamura T, Utsumi S (1982 a) Gelation mechanism of soybean 11S globulin: formation of soluble aggregates as transient intermediates. J Food Sci 47:26–30Google Scholar
  71. Mori T, Nakamura T, Utsumi S (1982 b) Formation of pseudoglycinins and their gel hardness. J Agric Food Chem 30:828–831Google Scholar
  72. Mori T, Nakamura T, Utsumi S (1986) Behavior of intermolecular bond formation in the late stage of heat-induced gelation of glycinin. J Agric Food Chem 34:33–36Google Scholar
  73. Morita Y, Yagi F, Aibara S, Yamashita H (1976) Chemical composition and properties of soybean beta-amylase. J Biochem 79:591–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Nakamura T, Utsumi S, Mori T (1984 a) Network structure formation in thermally induced gelation of soybean glycinin. J Agric Food Chem 32:349–352Google Scholar
  75. Nakamura T, Utsumi S, Kitamura K, Harada K, Mori T (1984 b) Cultivar differences in gelling characteristics of soybean glycinin. J Agric Food Chem 32:647–651Google Scholar
  76. Nakamura T, Utsumi S, Mori T (1985 a) Effects of temperature on the different stages in thermal gelling process of glycinin. J Agric Food Chem 33:1201–1203Google Scholar
  77. Nakamura T, Utsumi S, Mori T (1985 b) Formation of pseudo-glycinin from intermediary subunits and their gel properties and network structure. Agric Biol Chem 49:2733–2740Google Scholar
  78. Nakamura T, Utsumi S, Mori T (1986) Mechanism of heat-induced gelation and gel properties of soybean 7S globulin. Agric Biol Chem 50:1287–1293Google Scholar
  79. Negoro T, Momma T, Fukazawa C (1985) A cDNA encoding a glycinin Ala subunit of soybean. Nucl Acids Res 13:6719–6730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nielsen NC (1985) The structure and complexity of the 11S polypeptides in soybeans. J Am Oil Chem Soc 62:1680–1686Google Scholar
  81. Nio N, Motoki M, Takinami K (1985) Gelation of casein and soybean globulins by transglutaminase. Agric Biol Chem 49:2283–2286Google Scholar
  82. Pallavicini C, Peruffo ADB, Finley JW (1983) Comparative study of soybean plasteins synthesized with soluble and immobilized alpha-chymotrypsin. J Agric Food Chem 31:846–848Google Scholar
  83. Peng IC, Dayton WR, Quass DW, Allen CE (1982) Studies on the subunits involved in the interaction of soybean 1 IS protein and myosin. J Food Sci 47:1984–1990Google Scholar
  84. Peng IC, Quass DW, Dayton WR, Allen CE (1984) The physicochemical and functional properties of soybean 1 IS globulin: a review. Cereal Chem 61:480–490Google Scholar
  85. Polacco JC, Havir EA (1979) Comparisons of soybean urease isolated from seed and tissue culture. J Biol Chem 245:1707–1715Google Scholar
  86. Poure-EL A, Swenson TS (1976) Gelation parameters of enzymatically modified soy protein isolates. Cereal Chem 53:438–456Google Scholar
  87. Puski G (1975) Modification of functional properties of soy proteins by proteolytic enzyme treatment. Cereal Chem 52:655–664Google Scholar
  88. Richardson DP, Catsimpoolas N (1979) The effect of thermal denaturation on the tryptic hydrolysis of glycinin. J Sci Food Agric 30:463–468Google Scholar
  89. Saio K, Watanabe T (1978) Differences in functional properties of 7S and 11S soybean proteins. J Texture Stud 9:135–157Google Scholar
  90. Saio K, Kajikawa M, Watanabe T (1969) Food processing characteristics of soybean 11S and 7S proteins. Part 1. Effect of differences of protein components among soybean varieties on formation of tofu-gel. Agric Biol Chem 33:1301–1308Google Scholar
  91. Saio K, Kajikawa M, Watanabe T (1971) Food processing characteristics of soybean 11S and 7S proteins. Part 2. Effect of sulfhydryl groups on physical properties of tofu-gel. Agric Biol Chem 35:890–898Google Scholar
  92. Saita M, Ikenaka T, Matsushima Y (1971) Isolation and characterization of alpha-D-man- nosidase from soybean. J Biochem 70:827–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Scallon BJ, Thanh VH, Floener LA, Nielsen NC (1985) Identification and characterization of DNA clones encoding group-II glycinin subunits. Theor Appl Genet 70:510–519Google Scholar
  94. Scallon BJ, Dickinson CD, Nielsen NC (1987) Characterization of a null-allele for the Gy4 glycinin gene from soybean. Mol Gen Genet 208:107–113Google Scholar
  95. Schuler MA, Schmitt ES, Beachy RN (1982 a) Closely related families of genes code for the alpha and alpha-prime subunits of the soybean 7S storage protein complex. Nucl Acids Res 10:8225–8244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Schuler MA, Ladin BF, Pollaco JC, Freyer G, Beachy RN (1982 b) Structural sequences are conserved in the genes coding for the alpha, alpha-prime and beta subunits of the soybeans 7S seed storage protein. Nucl Acids Res 10:8245–8261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Schuler MA, Doyle JJ, Beachy RN (1983) Nucleotide homologies between the glycosylated seed storage proteins of Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Mol Biol 2:119–127Google Scholar
  98. Shaanan B, Shoham M, Yonath A, Lis H, Sharon N (1984) Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of soybean agglutinin. J Mol Biol 174:723–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Shimada K, Matsushita S (1980) Gel formation of soybean 7S and 11S protein. Agric Biol Chem 44:637–641Google Scholar
  100. Simon AE, Tenbarge KM, Scofield SR, Finkelstein RR, Crouch ML (1985) Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone of Brassica napus 12S storage protein shows homology with legumin from Pisum sativum. Plant Mol Biol 5:191–201Google Scholar
  101. Staswick PE, Hermodson MA, Nielsen NC (1981) Identification of the acidic and basic subunit complexes of glycinin. J Biol Chem 256:8752–8755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Staswick PE, Hermodson MA, Nielsen NC (1984 a) The amino acid sequence of the A2B1a subunit of glycinin. J Biol Chem 259:13424–13430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Staswick PE, Hermodson MA, Nielsen NC (1984 b) Identification of the cystines which link the acidic and basic components of the glycinin subunits. J Biol Chem 259:13431–13435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Steiner RF, Frattali V (1969) Purification and properties of soybean protein inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes. J Agric Food Chem 17:513–518Google Scholar
  105. Sung HY, Chen HJ, Liu TY, Su JC (1983) Improvement of the functionality of soy protein by introduction of new thiol groups through a papain-catalyzed acylation. J Food Sci 48:708–711Google Scholar
  106. Sykes GE, Gayler KR (1981) Detection and characterization of a new β-conglycinin from soybean seeds. Arch Biochem Biophys 210:525–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Takagi S, Akashi M, Yasumatsu K (1979 a) Determination of hydrophobic region in soybean globulin. J Jpn Soc Food Sci 26:133–138Google Scholar
  108. Takagi S, Okamoto N, Akashi M, Yasumatsu K (1979 b) Hydrophobic bonding and SS bonding in heat denaturation of 11S of soybean protein. J Jpn Soc Food Sci 26:139–144Google Scholar
  109. Thanh YH, Shibasaki K (1976) Heterogeneity of beta-conglycinin. Biochim Biophys Acta 439:326–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Umeya J, Yamauchi F, Shibasaki K (1980) Hardening and softening properties of soybean protein-water suspending systems. Agric Biol Chem 44:1321–1326Google Scholar
  111. Utsumi S, Kinsella JE (1985) Structure-function relationships in food proteins: subunit interactions in heat-induced gelation of 7S, 11S, and soy isolate proteins. J Agric Food Chem 33:297–303Google Scholar
  112. Utsumi S, Inaba H, Mori T (1981) Heterogeneity of soybean glycinin. Phytochemistry 20:585–589Google Scholar
  113. Utsumi S, Nakamura T, Mori T (1982) A micro-method for measurement of gel properties of soybean 11S globulin. Agric Biol Chem 46:1923–1924Google Scholar
  114. Utsumi S, Nakamura T, Mori T (1983) Role of constituent subunits in the formation and properties of heat-induced gels of 11S globulins from legume seeds. J Agric Food Chem 31:503–506Google Scholar
  115. Utsumi S, Kohno M, Mori T, Kito M (1987 a) An alternate cDNA encoding glycinin A1bBx subunit. J Agric Biol Chem 35:210–214Google Scholar
  116. Utsumi S, Nakamura T, Harada K, Mori T (1987 b) Occurrence of dissociable and undis- sociable soybean glycinin. Agric Biol Chem 51:2139–2144Google Scholar
  117. Van Kleef FSM (1986) Thermally induced protein gelation: gelation and rheological characterization of highly concentrated ovalbumin and soybean protein gels. Biopolymers 25:31–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Varfolomeyeva EP, Danilenko AN, Bikbov TM, Grinberg VY, Leontiev AL, Tolstoguzov VB (1986) The rheological properties of diluted solutions of 11S globulin isolated from soybeans by using selective thermal denaturation of 2S and 7S globulins. Nahrung 30:487–500Google Scholar
  119. Walburg G, Larkins BA (1985) Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding oat 12S globulin mRNA. Plant Mol Biol 6:161–169Google Scholar
  120. Wobus U, Baumlein H, Bassuner R, Heim U, Jung R, Muntz K, Saalbach G, Weschke W (1986) Characteristics of two types of legumin genes in the field bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor) genome as revealed by cDNA analysis. FEBS Lett 201:74–80Google Scholar
  121. Wolf WJ (1970) Soybean proteins: their functional, chemical and physical properties. J Agric Food Chem 18:969–976Google Scholar
  122. Wolf WJ, Tamura T (1969) Heat denaturation of soybean 11S protein. Cereal Chem 46:331–344Google Scholar
  123. Yamagishi T, Yamauchi F, Shibasaki K (1981) Electrophoretical and differential thermal analysis of soybean 11S globulin heated in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide. Agric Biol Chem 45:1661–1668Google Scholar
  124. Yamagishi T, Tomisawa T, Yamauchi F (1983) Spectroscopic studies on the aggregates and the dissociates induced by heating soybean 11S globulin in the presence of N-eth- ylmaleimide. Agric Biol Chem 47:2475–2481Google Scholar
  125. Yamagishi T, Tákahashi N, Yamauchi F (1987) Covalent polymerization of acidic subunits on heat-induced gelation of soybean glycinin. Cereal Chem 64:207–212Google Scholar
  126. Yamashita M, Arai S, Imaizumi Y, Amano Y, Fujimaki M (1979) A one step process for incorporation of L-methionine into soy proteins by treatment with papain. J Agric Food Chem 27:52–56Google Scholar
  127. Yamauchi F, Sato K, Yamagishi T (1984) Isolation and partial characterization of a salt- extractable globulin from soybean seeds. Agric Biol Chem 48:645–650Google Scholar
  128. Yamauchi F, Sato W, Kamata Y (1985) Subunit structure of gamma-conglycinin in soybean seeds. Phytochemistry 24:1503–1504Google Scholar
  129. Yasumatsu K, Toda J, Wada T, Misaki M, Ishii K (1972) Studies on the functional properties of food-grade soybean products. Agric Biol Chem 36:537–543Google Scholar
  130. Zoller MJ, Smith M (1983) Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of DNA fragments cloned into M13 vectors. In: Wu R, Grossman L, Moldave K (eds) Methods Enzymol, vol 100. Academic Press, New York, pp 468–500Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Nakamura

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations