Detecting and Responding to Plan-Oriented Misconceptions

  • Alexander Quilici
Part of the Symbolic Computation book series (SYMBOLIC)

Abstract

This chapter2 discusses the problem of detecting and responding to plan-oriented misconceptions in advice-seeking dialogs, concentrating on the problems of novice computer users. A cooperative response is one which not only corrects the user’s mistaken belief but also addresses the missing or mistaken user beliefs that led to it. Providing a cooperative response is presented as a process of the advisor trying to explain why he doesn’t hold the user’s belief and presenting this explanation to the user. An explanation is shown to correspond to a set of advisor beliefs that together contradict the user’s belief, and searching for an explanation to determine whether various abstract configurations of advisor beliefs hold. The search for an explanation makes use of both domain-specific advisor beliefs and a taxonomy of domain-independent explanations for potential user misconceptions. A taxonomy for misconceptions involving plan applicability conditions, preconditions, and effects is presented, along with a method of organizing the necessary advisor planning knowledge.

Keywords

Dition Carb Aqua 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [ABEL73]
    Abelson, R. (1973): The Structure of Belief Systems. In: R. C. Schank and K. M. Colby, eds.: Computer Models of Thought and Language. San Francisco, CA: Freeman. [QUIL*: 111]Google Scholar
  2. [ABEL79]
    Abelson, R. (1979): Differences between Belief and Knowledge Systems. Cognitive Science 3, 355–366. [QUIL*: 111]Google Scholar
  3. [ALVA86]
    Alvarado, S., M. Dyer and M. Flowers (1986): Editorial Comprehension in OpED through Argument Units. In: Proc. AAAI-86, 250–256. [QUIL*: 112]Google Scholar
  4. [ANDJ85b]
    Anderson, J. R., C. F. Boyle and G. Yost (1985): The Geometry Tutor. In: Proc. IJCAI-85, 1–7. [CHIN*: 77, 100; QUIL*: 116, 125; KASS*: 393]Google Scholar
  5. [BROW78]
    Brown, J. S. and R. R. Burton (1978): Diagnostic Models for Procedural Bugs in Basic Mathematical Skills. Cognitive Science 2, 155–192. [CHIN*: 77, 100; QUIL*: 116, 125; MCCO*: 237; KASS*: 392, 394; FINI*: 414]Google Scholar
  6. [BURT82]
    Burton, R. R. (1982): Diagnosing Bugs in a Simple Procedural Skill. In: D. H. Sleeman and J. S. Brown, eds.: Intelligent Tutoring Systems. New York: Academic Press. [QUIL*: 116, 125; KASS*: 394]Google Scholar
  7. [CARB*]
    Carberry, S.: Plan Recognition and its Use in Understanding Dialog. In this volume. [WAHL*: 12; RICH*: 39; KOBS*: 59; CHIN*: 78; QUIL*: 129; PARI*: 201; MCCO*: 251; JAME*: 256, 260, 278f.; SPAR*: 361f.; MORI*: 375f.; FINI*: 414]Google Scholar
  8. [CHIN*]
    Chin, D. N.: KNOME: Modeling What the User Knows in UC. In this volume. [WAHL*: 5; RICH*: 36, 51; KOBS*: 57, 60f., 65; QUIL*: 128, 130; CARB*: 160; PARI*: 229; MCCO*: 235; JAME*: 256, 278, 307; SPAR*: 362f.; MORI*: 375, 377; FINI*: 414]Google Scholar
  9. [DOLA85]
    Dolan, C. and M. Dyer (1985): Learning Planning Heuristics through Observation. In: Proc. IJCAI-85, 600–602. [QUIL*: 131]Google Scholar
  10. [DOLA86]
    Dolan, C. and M. Dyer (1986): Encoding Planning Knowledge for Recognition, Construction, and Learning. In: Proc. of the 8th Annual Cognitive Science Society, Amherst, MA, 488–499. [QUIL*: 126, 131]Google Scholar
  11. [DYER83]
    Dyer, M. (1983): In-Depth Understanding: A Computer Model of Narrative Comprehension. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [QUIL*: 111f., 126]Google Scholar
  12. [DYER88]
    Dyer, M., M. Flowers and J. F. Reeves (1988): Recognizing Situational Ironies: A Computer Model of Irony Recognition and Narrative Understanding. Advances in Computing and the Humanities 1 (in press). [QUIL*: 126]Google Scholar
  13. [FIKE71]
    Fikes, R. E. and N. J. Nilsson (1971): STRIPS: A New Approach to the Application of Theorem Proving to Problem Solving. Artificial Intelligence 2, 189–208. [QUIL*: 111; CARB*: 136]Google Scholar
  14. [FLOW82]
    Flowers, M., R. McGuire and L. Birnbaum (1982): Adversary Arguments and the Logic of Personal Attacks. In: W. Lehnert and M. Ringle, eds.: Strategies for Natural Language Processing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. [QUIL*: 112]Google Scholar
  15. [GOOM86]
    Goodman, B. A. (1986): Miscommunication and Plan Recognition. Paper presented at the International Workshop on User Modeling, Maria Laach, Fed. Rep. of Germany. [QUIL*: 129; SPAR*: 362]Google Scholar
  16. [JOSH84a]
    Joshi, A. K., B. Webber and R. M. Weischedel (1984): Living up to Expectations: Computing Expert Responses. In: Proc. AAAI-84, 169–175. [CHIN*: 104; QUIZ*: 126; JAME*: 256; COHE*: 329; FINI*: 414]Google Scholar
  17. [KAUT86]
    Kautz, H. and J. Allen (1986): Generalized Plan Recognition. In: Proc. AAAI-86, 423–427. [QUIL*: 129]Google Scholar
  18. [KEMK86]
    Kemke, C. (1986): The SINIX Consultant: Requirements, Design, and Implementation of an Intelligent Help System for a UNIX Derivative. Report No. 11, AI Laboratory, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Saarbrücken, Fed. Rep. of Germany. [WAHL*: 5, 32; QUIL*: 128]Google Scholar
  19. [KOLO84]
    Kolodner, J. L. (1984): Retrieval and Organizational Strategies in Conceptual Memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. [QUIL*: 125]Google Scholar
  20. [KOLO86]
    Kolodner, J. L. and R. E. Cullingford (1986): Towards a Memory Architecture that Supports Reminding. In: Proc. of the 8th Annual Cognitive Science Society, Amherst, MA, 467–477. [QUIL*: 125]Google Scholar
  21. [MCCO*]
    McCoy, K. F.: Highlighting a User Model to Respond to Misconceptions. In this volume. [WAHL*: 7, 27; CHIN*: 101; QUIL*: 126; CARB*: 152, 161; PARI*: 201; JAME*: 260; MORI*: 375; FINI*: 416]Google Scholar
  22. [NESS87]
    Nessen, E. (1987): SC-UM: User Modeling in the SINIX Consultant. Memo No. 18, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Saarbrücken, Fed. Rep. of Germany. [WAHL*: 5; CHIN*: 92; QUIL*: 128]Google Scholar
  23. [PARI*]
    Paris, C. L.: The Use of Explicit User Models in a Generation System for Tailoring Answers to the User’s Level of Expertise. In this volume. [CHIN*: 107; QUIL*: 130; CARB*: 161; JAME*: 256, 260]Google Scholar
  24. [POLL86a]
    Pollack, M. E. (1986): A Model of Plan Inference that Distinguishes between the Beliefs of Actors and Observers. In: Proc. of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, New York, NY, 207–214. [WAHL*: 12; QUIL*: 127; CARB*: 136, 143, 153; SPAR*: 362]Google Scholar
  25. [POLL86b]
    Pollack, M. E. (1986): Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Computer and Information Science, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. [WAHL*: 12; QUIL*: 112, 127]Google Scholar
  26. [QUIL85]
    Quilici, A. (1985): Human Problem Understanding and Advice Giving: A Computer Model. Technical Report 85–69, Computer Science Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA. [QUIL*: 113]Google Scholar
  27. [QUIL88]
    Quilici, A., M. Dyer and M. Flowers (1988): Recognizing and Responding to Plan-Oriented Misconceptions. In: Computational Linguistics 14(3), Special Issue on User Modeling (A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, eds.), 38–51. [QUEL*: 108; PARI*: 201]Google Scholar
  28. [SACE74]
    Sacerdoti, E. (1974): Planning in a Hierarchy of Abstraction Spaces. Artificial Intelligence 5, 115–135. [QUIL*: 111]Google Scholar
  29. [SCHR77]
    Schank, R. C. and R. Abelson (1977): Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. [QUIL*: 111]Google Scholar
  30. [SCHR82]
    Schank, R. C. (1982): Dynamic Memory. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Univ. Press. [QUIL*: 125]Google Scholar
  31. [SCHR86]
    Schank, R. C. (1986): Explanation Patterns: Understanding Mechanically and Creatively. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. [QUIL*: 111]Google Scholar
  32. [STEV82]
    Stevens, A., A. Collins and S. E. Goldin (1982): Misconceptions in Student’s Understanding. In: D. H. Sleeman and J. S. Brown, eds.: Intelligent Tutoring Systems. New York: Academic Press. [QUIL*: 116, 125]Google Scholar
  33. [WILE83]
    Wilensky, R. (1983): Planning and Understanding. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. [QUIL*: 111]Google Scholar
  34. [WILE84]
    Wilensky, R., Y. Arens and D. N. Chin (1984): Talking to UNIX in English: An Overview of UC. In: Communications of the ACM 27, 574–593. [WAHL*: 5, 19, 32; CHIN*: 74; QUIL*: 128]Google Scholar
  35. [WILE86]
    Wilensky, R., J. Mayfield, A. Albert, D. N. Chin, C. Cox, M. Luria, J. Martin and D. Wu (1986): UC: A Progress Report. Technical Report UCB/CSD 87/303, Division of Computer Science, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA. [WAHL*: 5, 19, 32; KOBS*: 60, 65; CHIN*: 74, 78, 82, 87f., 103; QUIL*: 128f.; SPAR*: 362; FINI*: 414f.]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Quilici

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations